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[by AUTHORITY.J 

INFANTRY TACTICS, 

FOR THE 

INSTRUCnON, EXERCISE, AND MANCEUYRES 



THE SOLDIEK, A ^^OMPAITT, LINE OF SKIKMISHERS, 
BATTALION, BRIGADE, 



CORPS D'ARMEE. 

BY 

BRIG.-GEK SILAS CASEY, 

F. S. AEMY. 



A^ol. I. 

Schools of the Soldier and Company. 
Instructions foe Skirmishers and Music. 



NEW TOEK: 

D. YAN NOSTRAND, 192 BROADWAY. 

1863. 






.. ^ 



Ai^^ 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, 

By D. YAN KOSTEAJ^fD, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States- 

for the Southern District of New Tork. 



C. A. ALVOKD, EUBOTSOTTPEB A2<rD PRIJTFEB. 



War Department, •. 

Washington, August 11, 1862. \ 

The System of Infantry Tactics, prepared by Brig.- 
Greneral Silas Casey, U. S. A., having been approved 
by the President, is adopted for the instruction of the 
Infantry of the Armies of the United States, whether 
Regular, Volunteer, or Militia, with the following 
modifications, viz.: — 

First. — That portion which requires that two com- 
panies shall be permanently detached from the bat- 
talion as skirmishers, will be suspended. 

Second. — In Title First, Article First, the following 
will be substituted for paragraph 6, viz. : 

" A regiment is composed of ten companies, which 
will be habitually posted from right to left in the fol- 
lowing order : First, sixth, fourth, ninth, third, eighth, 
fifth, tenth, seventh, second, according to the rank of 
Captains." 

Edwin M. Stanton, 

Secretary of War. 



PREFACE. 



The following volumes of Infantry Tactics are based 
upon the French ordonnances of 1831 and 1845, for 
the manoeuvres of heavy infantry and chasseurs a pied. 
Both of these systems have been in use in our service 
for some years ; the former having been translated by 
Lieutenant- General Scott, and the latter by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hardee. My attention, for many years given 
to the study of the manoeuvres of infantry, was more 
particularly directed to the subject while engaged, in 
1854, as President of a Board assembled by the War 
Department, for the review, correction and emendation 
of the translation of Lieutenant-Colonel Hardee. Since 
the introduction into our service of this latter driU, in 
connection with the tactics of General Scott, I have 
seen the necessity of a uniform system for the ma- 
noeuvres of all the infantry arm of service. 

The revolution which has been wrought within a 
few years past in the weapons both of artiUery and 
infantry, has necessitated a departure from those pro- 
cessional movements and formations in order of battle, 
which characterized the school of Frederick the Great. 
Apart even from the consideration of a change in 
weapons, these movements are condemned by the 
ablest tacticians of Europe, and have been violated in 
aU the great actions since the French Revolution. It 



6 TREFACE. 

has, consequently, been felt essential to fix the forma- 
tion to that in two ranks ; to increase the rapidity of 
the gait ; to increase the intervals between the bat- 
talions and brigades ; to make, in the evolutions, the 
brigade the tactical unit ; to hold the troops, when in 
manoeuvre in presence of the enemy, in closer order 
and well in hand ; and, as a general rule, to insist 
upon deployments upon the heads of columns, as the 
safest and most rapid means of forming line of battle. 

Not many changes from the original have been 
deemed necessary in the schools contained in the first 
volume. It is believed, however, that the careful 
reader will find among those made, several which will 
be of assistance in the movements of a company or 
line of skirmishers. 

The absolute necessity in action and on the battle- 
field, of skirmishers, and the heretofore unfrequent 
use of this class of troops in connection with the 
manoeuvres of the battalion, has led me to designate 
in each battalion two of its companies as light troops, 
whose sole duty will be to cover it in all the move- 
ments. It is intended that these companies shall be 
composed of picked men, possessing the highest phys- 
ical qualifications, marksmen as well, and that they 
shall be used as skirmishers. Should they, however, 
be present in company formation with the battalion 
during its manoeuvres (which will probably be ex- 
ceptional in its occurrence), methods have been pro- 
vided in the School of the Battalion, for their move- 
ments. In this Scliool, several battahon manoeuvres 
have been introduced not in the original, several 
thrown out, and others changed and modified. 

In the third volume, the manoeuvres of a brigade, 
comprising in its organization the three arms of ser- 
vice, are provided for, as well as the evolutions of a 
corps (Varmee^ composed of several brigades. In these 
schools a number of changes and additions have been 



made in the manoeuvres, formations, and organiza- 
tions. 

It is not my intention to discuss the propriety of 
the alterations made from • our present systems of 
tactics. I leave to the test of practice and experi- 
ence, the exhibitions of their merits and demerits. 
Most undoubtedly, there are still improvements to be 
made ; but if the system here set forth shall in any 
manner cause our armies to act with more efficiency 
on the field of battle, and thus subserve the cause of 
our beloved country in this her hour of trial, my most 
heartfelt wishes will have been attained. 

SILAS CASEY, 

Ool. 4th Eegt. U. S. Infantry, 
and Brig.-Gen. Yol., TJ. S. Army. 

Washing-ton, D. C, January Isi, 1862. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

S. S. Will stand for School of the Soldier. 

S. C. *' '■ " School of the CompaDy. 

S. B. *• *• '• School of the Battalion. 

E. B. " u ** Evolutions of a Brigade. 



Paragraphs marked ^^e suspended, and will noi 
be taught. 



INFANTRY TACTICS. 



TITLE I. 



AKTICLE I 

FORMATION OF INFANTRY IN ORDER 
OF BATTLE. 

1. In the formations of Infantry, a Brigade of 
the line wiU constitute the unit, and in every Utis 
of 'battle composed of more than one of these 
brigades, they will be posted from right to left, 
in the order of their numbers. 

2. A similar disposition will be made of the 
regiments in a brigade. 

3. In all exercises, manoeuvres, and evolutions, 
every regiment of ten companies will take the 
denomination of hattalion^ and all the battalions 
in the same brigade Avill be designated, from 
right to left, first battalion, second battalion, 
&c., (fee. By these designations they will be 
known in the evolutions. 

4. The interval between every two contigu- 



10 FORMATION IN OEDER OF BATTLE. 

ous battalions in the same brigade will be twenty- 
two paces, and the interval between every two 
contiguous brigades will habitually be one hun- 
dred and fifty paces. 

5. A less number of battalions than four will 
habitually be formed in one line of battle, but 
when it is thought expedient to form the brigade 
in two lines, the third and fourth battalions will be 
respectively posted in rear of the first and sec- 
ond battalions. The battalions of the first line 
will either be deployed, or in column at half dis- 
tance, or closed in mass. The battalions of the 
second line will always be drawn up in column, 
either simple or double, at half distance or closed 
in mass, and posted for tactical instruction, one 
hundred and fifty paces in rear of the first line, 
counting from the front rank of the first, to the 
front rank of the second line. The battalions of 
the second line will be posted so that a line pass- 
ing through their colors and those of the battal- 
ions of the first line respectively (whether deploy- 
ed or in column) shall always be perpendicular 
to the line of battle. In presence of the enemy 
the distance between the lines will depend upon 
circumstances ; in general the second line should 
not be much exposed to the enemy's fire. 

6. In a regiment composed of ten companies, 
eight will habitually be posted from right to 
left in the following order : firsts fifths fourth^ 
eighth^ thirds seventh^ sixths second^ according to 
the rank of the captains. These will be called 
Ijattcblion companies, 

7. With a less number of battalion companies, 
the same principle will be observed, viz. ; the 



FOEMATION IN ORDEE OF BATTLE. 11 

first captain will command the right company, 
the second captain the left company, the third 
captain the right centre company, and so on. 

8. The companies thus posted will be designa- 
ted from right to left, first company^ second com- 
pany^ <&c. This designation will he observed in 
the manoeuvres. 

0-9. The other two companies, to be designated 
from time to time by the colonel, will be called 
the companies of shirmishers. The first compa- 
ny will habitually be posted thirty paces in rear 
of the file closers of the first, and the second 
thirty paces in rear of the file closers of the 
last battalion company. 

0-10. Should the number of the regimental com- 
panies present, other than the companies of 
skirmishers, be less than eight, but one will be 
designated as skirmishers, to be in rear of the 
first or last battalion company, or divided into 
platoons, the first platoon in rear of the first, and 
the second in rear of the last battalion company, 
as the colonel may direct. 

11. The first two battalion companies on the 
right, whatever their denomination, will form the 
first division ; the next two companies the sec- 
ond division^ and so on to the left. 

12. Each company will be divided into two 
equal parts, which will be designated as the first 
and second platoon, counting from the right; 
and each platoon, in like manner, will be subdi- 
vided into two sections. 

13. In all exercises and manoeuvres, every reg- 
iment, or part of a regiment, composed of two or 
more companies, will be designated as a battalion. 



12 rOEMATIOK I]!^ OEDEE OF BATTLE. 

14, The color, with a guard to be hereinafter 
designated, will be posted on the left of the right 
centre battalion company. That company, and 
all on its right, will be denominated the rigM 
wing of the battalion ; the remaining companies 
the left iDing, 

15. The formation of a regiment is in two 
ranks ; and each company will be formed into 
two ranks, in the following manner : the corpo- 
rals will be posted in the front rank, and on the 
right and left of platoons, according to height ; 
the tallest corporal and the tallest man will form 
the first file, the next two tallest men will form the 
second file, and so on to the last file, which will 
be composed of the shortest corporal and the 
shortest man. 

18. The odd and even files, numbered as one, 
two, in the company, from right to left, will form 
groups of four men, who will be designated com- 
rades in lyattle. 

17. The distance from one rank to another will 
be thu'teen inches, measured from the breasts of 
the rear rank men to the backs or knapsacks of 
the front rank men. 

18. For manoeuvring, the companies of a bat 
talion will always be equalized, by transferring men 
from the strongest to the weakest companies. 

POSTS OF COMPANY OFFICEES, SEEGEANTS AND 
COEPOEALS. 

19. The company officers and sergeants are 
nine in number, and will be posted in the fol- 
lowing manner : 



i'OEMATIOX liSr OEDEE OF BATTLE. 13 

20. The captain on the right of the company, 
touching with the left elbow. 

21. The first sergeant in the rear rank, touch- 
ing with the left elbow, and covering the captain. 
In the manoeuvres he will be denominated cover- 
ing sergeant^ or right guide of the company. 

22. The remaining officers and sergeants will 
be posted as file closers, and two paces behind 
the rear rank. 

23. Th.Q first lieutenant^ opposite the centre of 
the fourth section. 

24. The second lieutenant^ opposite the centre 
of the first platoon. 

25. The third lieutenant^ opposite the centre of 
the second platoon. 

26. The second sergeant^ opposite the second 
file from the left of the company. In the ma- 
noeuvres he will be designated left guide of the 
company. 

27. The third sergeant^ opposite the second 
file from the right of the second platoon. 

28. The fourth sergeant^ opposite the second 
file from the left of the first platoon. 

29. The fifth sergeant^ opposite the second file 
from the right of the first platoon. 

30. In the left, or eighth company of the bat- 
talion, the second sergeant will be posted in the 
front rank, and on the left of the battalion. 

31. The corporals will be posted in the front 
rank as prescribed, ISTo. 15. 

32. Absent officers and sergeants wiU be re- 
placed — officers by sergeants, and sergeants by 
corporals. The colonel may detach a first lieu- 
tenant from one company to command another, 

2 



14 FOEMATIOK IK OEDER OF BATTLE. 

of whicli both the captain and first lieutenant are 
absent ; but this authority will give no right to a 
lieutenant to demand to be so detached. 

POSTS OF FIELD OFFICEES AXD EEGIMENTAL 
STAFF. 

33. The field officers, colonel, Heutenant colonel 
and majors, are supposed to be mounted, and on 
active service shall be on horseback. The adju- 
tant, when the battalion is manoeuvring, will be 
on foot. 

34. The colonel will take post thirty-five paces 
in rear of the file closers, and opposite the centre 
of the battalion. 

35. The lieutenant colonel and the senior ma- 
jor will be opposite the centres of the right and 
left wings respectively, and twelve paces in rear 
of the file closers. The junior major will take 
post thirty paces in rear of the file closers, and 
five paces to the right of the centre of the battal- 
ion ; and he will, under the direction of the col- 
onel, have the command of the companies of 
skirmishers. 

36. The adjutant and sergeant major will be 
opposite the right and left of the battalion re- 
spectively, and eight paces in rear of the file 
closers. 

37. The adjutant and sergeant major will aid 
the lieutenant colonel and senior major, respec- 
tively, in the manoeuvres. 

38. The colonel, if absent, will be replaced by 
the lieutenant colonel, and the latter by one of 
the majors. If all the field officers be absent, the 



rOEMATI02T IN OEDEE OF BATTLE. 15 

senior captain will command the battalion ; but if 
either be present, he will not call the senior cap- 
tain to act as field officer, except in case of evi- 
dent necessity. 

39. The quarter-master, surgeon and other 
staff officers, in one rank, on the left of the 
colonel, and three paces in his rear. 

40. The quarter-master sergeant, the commis- 
sary sergeant, and the hospital steward on a 
line with the front rank of the field music, and 
two paces on the right. 

POSTS OF FIELD MTJSIO AND BAND. 

41. The buglers or musicians of the battalion 
companies will be drawn up in four ranks, and 
posted twelve paces in rear of the file closers, the 
left opposite the centre of the left centre company. 
The senior principal musician will be two paces 
in front of the field music, and the other two 
paces in the rear. In the companies of skir- 
mishers, the buglers will be in one rank, in a 
line with the front rank of the company, and 
four paces from its right flank. 

42. The regimental band, if there be one, will 
be drawn up in two or four ranks, according to 
its numbers, and posted five paces in rear of the 
field music, having one of the principal musicians 
at its head. 

COLOE-GUAED. 

43. In each battalion the color-guard will be 
composed of eight corporals, and posted on the 
left of the right-centre company, of which com- 



16 FOEMATION IN OEDER OF BATTLE. 

panj, for the time being, the guard will make a 
part. 

44. The front rank will be composed of a ser- 
geant, to be selected by the colonel, who will be 
called, for the time, color-learer^ with the two 
ranking corporals, respectively, on his right and 
left ; the rear rank will be composed of the three 
corporals next in rank ; and the three remaining 
corporals will be posted in their rear, and on the 
line of file closers. The left guide of the color- 
company, when these three last named corporals 
are in the rank of file closers, will be immediately 
on their left. 

45. In battalions with less than five companies 
present, there will be no color-guard, and no dis- 
play of colors, except it may be at reviews. 

46. The corporals for the color-guard will be 
selected from those most distinguished for regu- 
larity and precision, as well in their positions 
under arms as in their marching. The latter 
advantage, and a just carriage of the person, are 
to be more particularly sought for in the selection 
of the color-bearer. 

OENERAL GTHDES. 

47. There will be two general guides in each 
battalion, selected, for the time, by the colonel, 
from among the sergeants (other than first ser- 
geants) the most distinguished for carriage under 
arms, and accuracy in marching. 

48. These sergeants will be respectively denom- 
inated, in the manoeuvres, right general guide^ 
and left general guide^ and be posted in the line 



INSTEUCTION OF THE BATTALION. IT 

of file closers ; the first in rear of the right, and 
the second in rear of the left flank of the batta- 
lion. 



ARTICLE II. 
INSTRUCTION OF THE BATTALION. 

49. Every commanding officer is responsible 
for the instruction of his command. He will as- 
semble the officers together for theoretical and 
practical instruction as often as he may judge 
necessary, and when unable to attend to this 
duty in person, it will be discharged by the offi- 
cer next in rank. 

50. Captains will be held responsible for the 
theoretical and practical instruction of their non- 
commissioned officers, and the adjutant for the 
instruction of the non-commissioned stafi*. To 
this end, they will require these tactics to be 
studied and recited, lesson by lesson ; and when 
instruction is given on the ground, each non- 
commissioned officer, as he explains a movement, 
should be required to put it into practical oper- 
ation. 

51. The non-commissioned officers should also 
be practised in giving commands. Each com- 
mand, in a lesson, at the theoretical instruction, 
should first be given by the instructor, and then 
repeated, in succession, by the non-commissioned 
officers, so that while they become habituated to 
the commands, uniformity may be established in 
the manner of giving them. 

2* 



18 INSTETTOTION OF THE BATTALION. 

52. In the school of the soldier, the company 
officers will be the instructors of the squads ; but 
if there be not a sufficient number of company 
officers present, intelligent sergeants may be sub- 
stituted; and two or three squads, under ser- 
geant instructors, be superintended, at the same 
time, by an officer. 

53. In the school of the company, the lieuten- 
ant colonel and the majors, under the colonel, 
will be the principal instructors, substituting fre- 
quently the captain of the company, and some- 
times one of the lieutenants ; the substitute, as 
far as practicable, being superintended by one of 
the principals. 

54. In the school of the battalion, the briga- 
dier general may constitute himself the principal 
instructor, frequently substituting the colonel of 
the battalion, sometimes the lieutenant, colonel, 
or one of the majors, and twice or thrice, in the 
same course of instruction, each of the three 
senior captains. In this school, also, the substi- 
tute will always, if practicable, be superintended 
by the brigadier general or the colonel, or (in 
case of a captain being the instructor), by the 
lieutenant colonel or one of the majors. 

55. Individual instruction being the basis of 
the instruction of companies, on which that of 
the regiment depends, and the first principles 
having the greatest influence upon this individ- 
ual instruction, classes of recruits should be 
watched with -the greatest care. 

56. Instructors will explain, in a few clear and 
precise words, the movement to be executed; 
and not to overburden the memory of the men, 



INSTETJCTION OF THE BATTALION. 19 

they will always use the same terms to explain 
the same principles. 

57. They should often join example to pr,ecept, 
should keep up the attention of the men by an 
animated tone, and pass rapidly from one move- 
ment to another, as soon as that which they 
command has been executed in a satisfactory 
manner. 

58. The bayonet should only be fixed when 
required to be used, either for attack or defence ; 
the exercises and manoeuvres will be executed 
without the bayonet. 

59. In the movements which require the bay- 
onet to be fixed, the chief of the battalion will 
cause the signal to fix tayonet^ to be sounded; 
at this signal the men fix bayonets without com- 
mand, and immediately replace their pieces in 
the position they were in before the signal. 

Instruction of OflB.cers. 

60. The instruction of officers can be perfect- 
ed only by joining theory to practice. The col- 
onel wdll often practise them in marching and 
in estimating distances, and he will carefully en- 
deavor to cause them to take steps equal in length 
and swiftness. They will also be exercised in 
the double quick step. 

61. The instruction of officers will include all 
the Titles in this system of drill, as well as a per- 
fect knowledge of the system of firing as pre- 
scribed by the War Department. 

62. Every officer will make himself perfectly 
acquainted with the bugle signals ; and should, 



20 Il!^STRUCTION OF THE BATTALION. 

by practice, be enabled, if necessarj, to sound 
them. TMs knowledge, so necessary in general 
instruction, becomes of vital importance on ac- 
tual service in tbe field. 



Instruction of Sergeants. 

63. As the discipline and efficiency of a com- 
pany materially depend on the conduct and char- 
acter of its sergeants, they should be selected 
with care, and properly instructed in all the du- 
ties appertaining to their rank. 

64. Their theoretical instruction should in- 
clude the School of the Soldier, the School of the 
Company, and the Drill for Skirmishers ; as also 
a knowledge of the principles of firing. They 
should likewise be well instructed in their duties 
as battalion guides. 

65. The captain selects from the corporals in 
his company, those whom he judges fit to be ad- 
mitted to the theoretical instruction of the ser- 
geants. 

Instruction of Corporals. 

68. Their theoretical instruction should in- 
clude the School of the Soldier, with a knowl- 
edge of firing. 

67. The captain selects from his company a 
few privates, who may be admitted to the theo- 
retical instruction of the corporals. 

68. As the instruction of sergeants and corpo- 
rals, is intended principally to qualify them for 
the instruction of the privates, they should be 



INSTRUCTION OF THE BATTALION. 21 

taught not only to execute, but to explain intel- 
ligibly every tiling they may be required to 
teach. 

Commands. 

There are three kinds. 

69. The command of caution^ which is atten- 
tion. 

70. The preparatory command^ which indi- 
cates the movement which is to be executed. 

71. The command of execution^ such as ma/rch 
Dr Jialt^ or, in the manual of arms, the part of 
command which causes an execution. 

72. The tone of command should be animated, 
distinct, and of a loudness proportioned to the 
Anmber of men under instruction. 

73. The command attention is pronounced at 
the top of the voice, dwelling on the last syl- 
lable. 

74. The command of execution will be pro- 
nounced in a tone firm and brief. 

75. The commands of caution, and the pre- 
paratory commands, are herein distinguished by 
italics^ those of execution by capitals. 

76. Those preparatory commands which, from 
their length, are difficult to be pronounced at 
once, must be divided into two or three parts, 
with an ascending progression in the tone of 
command, but always in such a manner that the 
tone of execution may be more energetic and 
elevated; the divisions are indicated by a hy- 
phen. The parts of commands which are placed 
in a parenthesis, are not pronounced. 



22 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PART I. 



TITLE II. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER 

General Bules and Division of the School of the 
Soldier. 

77. The object of this school being the indi- 
vidual and progressive instruction of the recruits, 
the instructor never requires a movement to be 
executed until he has given an exact explanation 
of it ; and he executes, himself, the movement 
which he commands, so as to join example to 
precept. He accustoms the recruit to take, hj 
himself, the position which is explained — teaches 
him to rectify it only when required by his want 
of intelligence — and sees that all the movements 
are performed without precipitation. 

78. Each movement should be understood be- 
fore passing to another. After they have been 
properly executed in the order laid down in each ' 
lesson, the instructor no longer confines himself 
to that order ; on the contrary, he should change 
it, that he may judge of the intelligence of the 
men. 

79. The instructor allows the men to rest at 
the end of each part of the lessons, and oftener, 
if he thinks proper, especially at the commence- 
ment ; for this purpose he commands Rest. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART I. 23 

80. At the command Eest, the soldier is no 
longer required to preserve immobility, or to 
remain in his place. If the instructor wishes 
merely to relieve the attention of the recruit, he 
commands, in place — Rest ; the soldier is then 
not required to preserve his immobflitj, but he 
always keeps one of his feet in its place. 

81. When the instructor wishes to commence 
the instruction, he commands — Attention; at 
the command, the soldier takes his position, re- 
mains motionless, and fixes his attention. 

82. The School of the Soldier will be divided 
into three parts : the first, comprehending what 
ought to be taught to recruits without arms ; the 
second, the manual of arms, the loadings and 
firings ; the third, the principles of alignment, 
the march by the front, the different steps, the 
march by the flank, the principles of wheeling, 
and those of change of direction ; also, long 
marches in double quick time and the run. 

83. Each part will be divided into lessons, as 
follows : 

part first. 

Lesson 1. Position of the soldier without arms : 
Eyes right, left and front. 

Lesson 2. Facings. 

Lesson 3. Principles of the direct step in com- 
mon and quick time. 

Lesson 4. Principles of the direct step in 
double quick time and the run. 



24 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER ^PART I. 

PAET SECOND. 

Lesson 1. Principles of shouldered arms. 
Lesson 2. Manual of arms. 
Lesson 3. To load in four times, and at will. 
Lesson 4. Tirings, direct, oblique, by file, and 
by rank. 

Lesson 5. To fire and load, kneeling and lying. 
Lesson 6. Bayonet exercise. 

PAET THIED. 

Lesson 1. Union of eight or twelve men for 
instruction in the principles of alignment. 

Lesson 2. The direct march, the oblique march, 
and the diflferent steps. 

Lesson 3. The march by the flank. 

Lesson 4. Principles of wheeling and change 
of direction. 

Lesson 5. Long marches and double quick 
time, and the run, with arms and knapsacks. 



PART FIRST. 

84. This will be taught, if practicable, to one 
recruit at a time ; but three or four may be unit- 
ed, when the number is great, compared with 
that of the instructors. In this case, the re- 
cruits will be placed in a single rank, at one pace 
from each other. In this part, the recruits will 
be without arms. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — ^PAET I. 25 

Lessor I. 
Position of a Soldier. 

85. Heels on the same line, as near each other 
IS the conformation of the man will permit ; 

The feet turned out equally, and forming with 
)ach other something less than a right angle ; 

The knees straight without stiffness ; 

The body erect on the hips, inclining a little 
torward ; 

The shoulders square and falling equally ; 

The arms hanging naturally ; 

The elbows near the body ; 

The palm of the hand turned a little to the 
frt>nt, the little finger behind the seam of the 
pantaloons ; 

The head erect and square to the front, without 
CQnstraint ; 

The chin near the stock, without covering it ; 

The eyes fixed straight to the front, and strik- 
ing the ground about the distance of fifteen 
paces. 

Remarks on tlie Position of a Soldier. 

Heels on the same line ; 

86. Because, if one were in rear of the other, 
the shoulder on that side would be thrown back, 
or the position of the soldier would be con- 
strained. 

neels more or less closed ^ 

Because men who are knock-kneed, or who 



26 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PAET I. 

tave legs with large calves, cannot, without con- 
straint, make their heels touch while standing. 

The feet equally turned oui^ and not forming too large an 
angle; 

Because, if one foot were turned out more 
than the other, a shoulder would be deranged, 
and if both feet be too much turned out, it would 
not be practicable to incline the upper part of the 
body forward without rendering the whole posi- 
tion unsteady. 

Knees extended without stiffness ; 

Because, if stiffened, constraint and fatigue 
would be unavoidable. 

The body erect on the hips; 

Because it gives equilibrium to the position. 
The instructor will observe that many recruits 
have the bad habit of dropping a shoulder, of 
drawing in a side, or of advancing a hip, partic- 
ularly the right, when under arms. These are 
defects he will labor to correct. 

The upper part of the body inclining forward ; 

Because commonly, recruits are disposed to do 
the reverse, to project the belly, and to throw back 
the shoulders, when they wish to hold themselves 
erect, from which result great inconveniences in 
marching. The habit of inclining forward the 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PAET I. 27 

upper part of the body is so important to contract, 
that the instructor must enforce it at the begin- 
ning, particularly with recruits who have natu- 
rally the opposite habit. 

Shoulders sqicare ; 

Because, if the shoulders be advanced beyond 
the line of the breast, and the back arched (the 
defect called round-shouldered, not uncommon 
among recruits), the man cannot align himself, 
nor use his piece with address. It is important, 
then, to correct this defect, and necessary to that 
end that the coat should set easy about the shoul- 
ders and arm-pits ; but in correcting this defect, 
the instructor will take care that the shoulders 
be not thrown too much to the rear, which would 
cause the belly to project, and the small of the 
back to be curved. 

The arms hanging naturally, elbows near the body, the 
palm of the hand a little turned to the front, the Utile 
finger behind the seam of the pantaloons ; 

Because these positions are equally important 
to the shoulder-arms, and to prevent the man 
from occupying more space in a rank than is 
necessary to a free use of the piece ; they have, 
moreover, the advantage of keeping in the shoul- 
ders. 

The face straight to the front, and without constraint ; 

Because, if there be stiffness in the latter po- 



28 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PART I. 

sition, it would communicate itself to the wliole 
of the upper part of the body, embarrass its 
movements, and give pain and fatigue. 

Eyes direct to the front; 

Because this is the surest means of maintaining 
the shoulders in line — an essential object, to be 
insisted on and attained. 

87. The instructor having given the recruit 
the position of the soldier without arms, will now 
teach him the turning of the head and eyes. He 
will command : 

1. Eyes — Right. 2. Front. 

88. At the word rights the recruit will turn 
the head gently, so as to bring the inner cor- 
ner of the left eye in a line with the buttons 
of the coat, the eyes fixed on the line of the 
eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the 
same rank. 

89. At the second command, the head will re- 
sume the direct or habitual position. 

90. The movement of Eyes — Left will be exe- 
cuted by inverse means. 

91. The instructor will take particular care 
that the movement of the head does not derange 
the squareness of the shoulders, which will hap- 
pen if the movement of the former be too 
sudden. 

92. When the instructor shall wish the recruit 
to pass from the state of attention to that of 
ease, he will command : 



school of the soldier — part i. 29 
Eest. 

93. To cause a resumption of the habitual po- 
sition, the instructor will command : 

1. Attention. 2. Squad. 

94. At the first word, the recruit will fix his 
attention ; at the second, he will resume the pre- 
scribed position and steadiness. 

Lesson II. 
Facings. 

95. Facing to the right and left will be exe- 
cuted in one time^ or pause. The instructor will 
command : 

1. Squad, 2. Bight (or left) — Face. 

96. At the second command, raise the right 
foot slightly, turn on the left heel, raising the 
toes a little, and then replace the right heel by 
the side of the left, and on the same line. 

97. The full face to the rear (or front) will be 
executed in two times^ or pauses. The instructor 
will command. 

1. Squad, 2. About — Face. 

98. {First time,) At the word ahouf^ the re- 
cruit will turn on the left heel, bring the left toe 
to the front, carry the right foot to the rear, the 

3* 



30 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PAET I. 

hollow opposite to, and full three inches from, 
the left heel, the feet square to each other. 

99. {Second time.) At the word face^ the re- 
cruit will turn on both heels, raise the toes a lit- 
tle, extend the hams, face to the rear, bringing, 
at the same time, the right heel by the side of 
the left. 

100. The instructor will take care that these 
motions do not derange the position of the body. 

Lesson III. 
Principles of the Direct Step. 

101. The length of the direct step, or pace, in 
common time, will be twenty-eight inches, reck- 
oning from heel to heel, and in swiftness, at the 
rate of ninety in a minute. 

102. The instructor, seeing the recruit confirm- 
ed in his position, will explain to him the prin- 
ciple and mechanism of this step — placing him- 
self six or seven paces from, and facing to, the 
recruit. He will himself execute slowly the step 
in the way of illustration, and then command: 

1. Squad^ forward. 2. Common time, 
3. Maeoh. 

103. At the first command, the recruit will 
throw the weight of the body on the right leg, 
without bending the left knee. 

104. At the third command, he will smartly, 
but without a jerk, carry straight forward the 
left foot twenty-eight inches from the right, the 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET I. 31 

sole near the ground, the ham extended, the toe 
a little depressed, and, as also the knee, slightly 
turned out ; he will, at the same time, throw the 
weight of the body forward, and plant flat the 
left foot, without shock, precisely at the distance 
where it finds itself from the right when the 
weight of the body is brought forward, the 
whole of which will now rest on the advanced 
foot. The recruit will next, in like manner, ad- 
vance the right foot and plant it as above, the 
heel twenty-eight inches from the heel of the 
left foot, and thus continue to march without 
crossing the legs, or striking the one against the 
other, without turning the shoulders, and pre- 
serving always the face direct to the front. 

105. When the instructor shall wish to arrest 
the march, he will command : 

1. Squa^, 2. Halt. 

106, At the second command, which will be 
given at the instant when either foot is coming 
to the ground, the foot in the rear will be brought 
up, and planted by the side of the other, without 
shock. 

107. The instructor will indicate, from time to 
time, to the recruit, the cadence of the step by 
giving the command one at the instant of raising 
a foot, and two at the instant it ought to be 
planted, observing the cadence of ninety steps 
in a minute. This method will contribute greatly 
to impress upon the mind the two motions into 
which the step is naturally divided. 

108, Common time will be employed only in 



32 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET I. 

the first and second parts of tlie Sciiool for tlie 
Soldier. As soon as the recruit has acquired 
steadiness, has become established in the princi- 
ples of shouldered arms, and in the mechanism, 
length and swiftness of the step in common 
time, he will be practised only in quick time, the 
double quick time, and the run. 

109. The principles of the step in quick time 
are the same as for common time, but its swift- 
ness is at the rate of one hundred and ten steps 
per minute. 

110. The instructor wishing the squad to 
march in quick time, will command : 

1. Squad ^ foi'ward. 2. Maech. 

Lessox IY. 
Principles of tlie Double Quick Step. 

111. The length of the double quick step is 
thirtj-three inches, and its swiftness at the rate 
of one hundred and sixty-five steps per minute. 

112. The instructor wishing to teach the re- 
cruits the principles and mechanism of ihQ double 
quick step, will command : 

1. Doiible quick stejp. 2. Maecii. 

113. At the first command the recruit will 
raise his hands to a level with his hips, the hands 
closed, the nails toward the body, the elbows 
to the rear. 

114. At the second command, he will raise to 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET I. 66 

the front Ms left leg bent, in order to give to the 
knee the greatest elevation, the part of the leg 
between the knee and the instep vertical, the toe 
depressed; he will then replace his foot in it^ 
former position ; with the right leg he will exe- 
cute what has just been prescribed for the left, 
and the alternate movement of the legs will be 
continued until the command : 

1. Squad. 2. Halt. 

115. At the second command, the recruit will 
bring the foot which is raised bj the side of the 
other, and dropping at the same time his hands 
hj his side, will resume the position of the sol- 
dier without arms. 

116. The instructor placing himself seven or 
eight paces from, and facing the recruit, will indi- 
cate the cadence by the commands one and two, 
given alternately at the instant each foot should 
be brought to the ground, which at first will be 
in common time, but its rapidity will be gradu- 
ally augmented. 

117. The recruit being sufficiently established 
in the principles of this step, the instructor will 
command : 

1. Squad, forward. 2. DouMe quich 
3. Maech. 

118. At the first command, the recruit wil? 
throw the weight of his body on the right leg. 

119. At the second command he will place 
his arms as indicated iTo. 113. 



34 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PART I. 

120. At the third command, lie will carry for- 
ward the left foot, the leg slightly bent, the knee 
somewhat raised — will plant his left foot, the toe 
first, thirty-three inches from the right, and with 
the right foot will then execute what has jnst 
been prescribed for the left. This alternate move- 
ment of the legs will take place by throwing the 
weight of the body on the foot that is planted, 
and by allowing a natural, oscillatory motion to 
the arms. 

121. The double quick step may be executed 
with dififerent degrees of swiftness. Under ur- 
gent circumstances the cadence of this step may 
be increased to one hundred and eighty per min- 
ute. At this rate a distance of four thousand 
yards would be passed over in about twenty-five 
minutes. 

122. The recruits will be exercised also in run- 
ning. 

123. The principles are the same as for the 
double quick step, the only difference consisting 
in a greater degree of swiftness. 

124. It is recommended in marching at double 
quick time, or the run, that the men should 
breathe as much as possible through the nose, 
keeping the mouth closed. Experience has proved 
that, by conforming to this principle, a man can 
pass over a much longer distance, and with less 
fatigue. 



YOL. 1. SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. Fh. 2. 




Shouldered Anns.— No. 127. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART II. 35 

PAET SECOND. 

General Rules. 

, 125. The instructor will not pass the men to 
this second part until thej shall be well estab- 
lished in the position of the bodj, and in the 
manner of marching at the different steps. 

126. He will then unite four men, whom he 
will place in the same rank, elbow to elbow, and 
instruct them in the position of shouldered arms, 
as follows : 

, Lesson I. 

Principles of Shouldered Arms. 

127. The recruit being placed as explained in 
the first lesson of the first part, the instructor 
will cause him to bend the right arm slightly, 
and place the piece in it, in the following man- 
ner: 

128. The piece in the right hand — the barrel 
nearly vertical and resting in the hollow of the 
shoulder — the guard to the front, the arm hang- 
ing nearly at its full length near the body ; the 
thumb and fore-finger embracing the guard, the 
remaining fingers closed together, and grasping 
the swell of the stock just under the cock, which 
rests on the little finger. 

129. Recruits are frequently seen with natural 
defects in the conformation of the shoulders, 
breast and hips. These the instructor will labor 
to correct in the lessons without arms, and after- 
wards, by steady endeavors, so that the appear- 



86 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART H. 

ance of the pieces, in the same line, maj be uni- 
form, and this without constraint to the men in 
their positions. 

130. The instructor will have occasion to re- 
mark that recruits, on first bearing arms, are 
liable to derange their position by lowering the 
right shoulder and the right hand, or by sinking 
the hip and spreading out the elbows. 

131. He will be careful to correct all these 
faults by continually rectifying the position ; he 
will sometimes take away the piece to replace it 
the better ; he will avoid fatiguing the recruits 
too much in the beginning, but labor by degrees 
to render this position so natural and easy that 
they may remain in it a long time without fatigue. 

132. Finally, the instructor will take great care 
that the piece, at a shoulder, be not carried too 
high nor too low : if too high, the right elbow 
would spread out, the soldier would occupy too 
much space in his rank, and the piece be made to 
waver ; if too low, the files would be too much 
closed, the soldier would not have the necessary 
space to handle his piece with facility, the right 
arm would become too much fatigued, and would 
draw down the shoulder. 

133. The instructor, before passing to the sec- 
ond lesson, will cause to be Repeated the move- 
ments of eyes rigJit^ left and front^ and the fa- 
cings, 

LEsso]sr II. 

Manual of Arms. 

134. The manual of arms will be taught to 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PAET II. 37 

four men, placed, at first, in one rank, elbow to 
elbow, and afterwards in two ranks. 

135. Each command will be executed in one 
time (or pause), but this time will be divided into 
motions, the better to make known the mechan- 
ism. 

136. The rate, (or swiftness) of each motion, in 
the manual of arms, with the exceptions herein 
indicated, is fixed at the ninetieth part of a min- 
ute ; but, in order not to fatigue the attention, 
the instructor will, at first, look more particular- 
ly to the execution of the motions, without re- 
quiring a nice observance of the cadence, to which 
he will bring the recruits progressively, and after 
they shall have become a little familiarized with 
the handling of the piece. 

137. As the motions relative to the cartridge, 
to the rammer, and to the fixing and unfixing of 
the bayonet, cannot be executed at the rate pre- 
scribed, nor even with a uniform swiftness, they 
will not be subjected to that cadence. The in- 
structor will, however, labor to cause these mo- 
tions to be executed with promptness, and, above 
all, with regularity. 

138. The last syllable of the command will de- 
cide the brisk execution of the first motion of 
each time (or pause). The commands two^ three^ 
and fouT^ will decide the brisk execution of the 
other motions. As soon as the recruits shall well 
comprehend the positions of the several motions 
of a time, they will be taught to execute the time 
without resting on its different motions ; the 
mechanism of the time will nevertheless be ob- 
served, as well to give a perfect use of the piece, 

4 



38 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PAET H. 

as to avoid the sinking of, or slurring over, either 
of the motions. 

139. The manual of arms will be taught in the 
following progression ; the instructor will com- 
mand : 

Support — Aems. 

One time and three motions, 

140. {First motion.) Bring the piece, with the 
right hand, perpendicularly to the fi-ont and be- 
tween the eyes, the barrel to the rear ; seize the 
piece with the left hand at the lower band, raise 
this hand as high as the chin, and seize the piece 
at the same time with the right hand four inches 
below the cock. 

141. {Second motion.) Turn the piece with the 
right hand, the barrel to the front ; carry the 
piece to the left shoulder, and pass the fore-arm 
extended on the breast between the right hand 
and the cock ; support the cock against the left 
fore-arm, the left hand resting on the right 
breast. 

142. {Third motion.) Drop the right hand by 
the side. 

143. When the instructor may wish to give 
repose in this position, he will command : 

Eest. 

144. At this command, the recruits will bring 
up smartly the right hand to the handle of the 
piece (small of the stock), when they will not be 



YOL. 1. SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 



PL. 



/f5%^ If 



mm.. 




Support Arms. — 2^o. 139. 



YOL. 1. SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER, Pl. 4. ' 




Present Arms. — No. 149. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PAET II. 89 

required to preserve silence, or steadiness of po- 
sition. 

145. When the instructor inaj wish the re- 
cruits to pass from this position to that of silence 
and steadiness, he will command : 

1. Attention. 2. Squad. » 

146. At the second word, the recruits will re- 
sume the position of the third motion of support 
arm^. 

Shoulder — Aems. 

One time and three motions. 

147. {First motion.) Grasp the piece with the 
right hand under and against the left fore-arm ; 
seize it with the left hand at the lower band, the 
thumb extended ; detach the piece slightly from 
the shoulder, the left fore-arm along the stock. 

148. {Second motion.) Carry the piece verti- 
cally to the right shoulder with both hands, the 
rammer to the front, change the position of the 
right hand so as to embrace the guard with the 
thumb and fore-finger, slip the left hand to 
the height of the shoulder, the fingers extended 
and joined, the right arm nearly straight. 

149. {Third motion.) Drop the left hand quick- 
ly by the side. 

Present — Aems. 

One time and two m^otions. 

150. {First motion.) With the right hand bring 



40 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART II. 

the piece erect before tlie centre of the body, the 
rammer to the front ; at the same time seize the 
piece with the left hand half-way between the 
guide sight and lower band, the thumb extended 
along the barrel and against the stock, the fore- 
arm horizontal and resting against the body, the 
hand as high as the elbow. 

151. {Second motion,) Grasp the small of the 
stock with the right hand, below and against the 
guard. 

Shoulder — Aems. 

One time and two motions, 

152. {First motion.) Bring the piece to the 
right shoulder, at the same time change the posi- 
tion of the right hand so as to embrace the 
guard with the thumb and fore-finger, slip up the 
left hand to the height of the shoulder, the fin- 
gers extended and joined, the right arm nearly 
straight. 

153. {Second motion?) Drop the left hand quick- 
ly by the side. 

Order — Aems. 

One time and two motions. 

154. {First motioji.) Seize the piece briskly 
with the left hand near the upper band, and de- 
tach it slightly from the shoulder with the right 
hand : loosen the grasp of the right hand, lower 
the piece with the left, reseize the piece with the 



YOL. 1. SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 



Pl. 5. 




Ordered arms, — No, 156. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIBE PAET II. 41 

right hand above the lower band, the little finger 
in the rear of the barrel, the butt about four 
inches from the ground, the right hand support- 
ed against the hip, drop the left hand by the 
side. If the rifle musket is used, the piece will 
be seized by the left hand a little above the mid- 
dle band, and it will be seized by the right hand, 
just above the lower band. 

155. {Second motion.) Let the piece slip 
through the right hand to the ground by open- 
ing slightly the fingers, and take the position 
about to be described. 

POSITIO^f OF OEDEE AEMS. 

156. The hand low, the barrel between the 
thumb and fore-finger extended along the stock ; 
the other fingers extended and joined ; the muz- 
zle about two inches from the right shoulder; 
the rammer in front ; the toe (or beak) of the 
butt, against, and in a line with, the toe of the 
right foot, the barrel perpendicular. 

157. When the instructor may wish to give 
repose in this position, he will command : 

Eest. 

158. At this command, the recruits will not 
be required to preserve silence or steadiness. 

159. When the instructor may wish the re- 
cruits to pass from this position to that of si- 
lence and steadiness, he will command : 

1. Attention, 2. Squad. 
4* 



42 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET II. 

180. At the second word, the recruits will re- 
sume the position of order arms. 

Shoulder — Aems. 

One time and two motions. 

■ 161. (First motion.) Raise the piece vertically 
with the right hand to the height of the right 
breast, and opposite the shoulder, the elbow 
close to the body ; seize the piece with the left 
hand below the right, and drop quickly the right 
hand to grasp the piece at the swell of the 
stock, the thumb and fore-finger embracing the 
guard ; press the piece against the shoulder with 
the left hand, the right arm nearly straight. 

162. (Second motion,) Drop the left hand 
quickly by the side. 

LOAD IX iriXE TIMES. 

1. Load. 
One tirhe and one motion, 

163. Grasp the piece with the left hand as 
high as the right elbow, and bring it vertically 
opposite the middle of the body, shift the right 
hand to the upper band, place the butt between 
the feet, the barrel to the front ; seize it with the 
left hand near the muzzle, which should be three 
inches from the body ; carry the right hand to 
the cartridge-box. If the rifle musket is used 
the right hand will be shifted to just below the 



Vol. 1. SCHOOL of the soldier. Pl. 




Load.—Ko. 163. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PAET II. 43 

Upper band. The muzzle will be eight inches 
from the body. 

2, Handle — Oarteid&e. 

One time and one motion. 

164. Seize the cartridge with the thumb and 
next two fingers, and place it between the teeth. 

3. Tear — Oabteidge. 

One time and one motion, 

165. Tear the paper to the powder, hold the 
cartridge upright between the thumb and first 
two fingers, near the top ; in this position place 
it in front of and near the muzzle — the back of 
the hand to the front. 

4. Charge — Oaeteidge. 

One time and one motion. 

166. Empty the powder into the barrel : dis- 
engage the ball from the paper with the right 
hand and the thumb and first two fingers of the 
left ; insert it into the bore, the pointed end up- 
permost, and press it down with the right 
thumb ; seize the head of the rammer with the 
thumb and fore-finger of the right hand, the 
other fingers closed, the elbows near the body. 



44 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET H. 

5. Draw — Kammee. 
One time and three motions. 

167. {First motioji.) Half draw tlie rammer by 
extending the right arm ; steady it in this posi- 
tion with the left thumb ; grasp the rammer 
near the muzzle with the right hand, the little 
finger uppermost, the nails to the front, the 
thumb extended along the rammer. 

168. (Second motion.) Clear the rammer from 
the pipes by again extending the arm ; the ram- 
mer in the prolongation of the pipes. 

169. {Third onotion.) Turn the rammer, the 
little end of the rammer passing near the left 
shoulder ; place the head of the rammer on the 
ball, the back of the hand to the front. 

6. Bam — Caeteidoe. 
One time and one motion. 

170. Insert the rammer as far as the right, and 
steady it in this position with the thumb of the 
left hand; seize the rammer at the small end 
with the thumb and fore-finger of the right 
hand, the back of the hand to the front ; press 
the ball home, the elbows near the body. 

7. Return — Rammee. 
One time and three motions. 

171. {First motion.) Draw the rammer half- 



VOL. 1. SCHOOL OF thp: soldier. 



Jt*L. 7. 




SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET II. 45 

way out, and steady it in this position with the 
left thumb ; grasp it near the muzzle with the 
right hand, the little finger uppermost, the nails 
to the front, the thumb along the rammer : clear 
the rammer from the bore by extending the arm, 
the nails to the front, the rammer in the prolon- 
gation of the bore. 

172. {Second motion.) Turn the rammer, the 
head of the rammer passing near the left shoul- 
der, and insert it in the pipes until the right hand 
reaches the muzzle, the nails to the front. 

173. {Tliircl motion.) Force the rammer home 
by placing the little finger of the right hand on 
the head of the rammer ; pass the left hand 
down the barrel to the extent of the arm, with- 
out depressing the shoulder. 

8. Prime. 

One time and two motions. 

174. {First motion.) "With the left hand raise 
the piece till the hand is as high as the eye, 
grasp the small of the stock with the right hand ; 
half face to the right ; place, at the same time, 
the right foot behind and at right angles with 
the left ; the hollow of the right foot against the 
left heel. Slip the left hand down to the lower 
band, the thumb along the stock, the left elbow 
against the body; bring the piece to the right 
side, the butt below the right fore-arm — the 
small of the stock against the body and two 
inches below the right breast, the barrel up- 
wards, the muzzle on a level with the eye. 



46 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PART II. 

175. {Second motion?) Half cock with the 
thumb of the right hand, the fingers supported 
against the guard and the small of the stock — 
remove the old cap with one of the fingers of 
the right hand, and with the thumb and fore- 
finger of the same hand, take a cap from the 
pouch, place it on the nipple, and press it down 
with the thumb ; seize the small of the stock 
with the right hand. 

9. Shoulder — Arms. 

One time and two motions, 

176. {First motion.) Bring the piece to the 
right shoulder and support it there with the left 
hand, face to the front ; bring the right heel to 
the side of and on a line with the left ; grasp the 
piece with the right hand as indicated in the po- 
sition of shoulder arms. 

177. {Second motion?) Drop the left hand 
quickly by the side. 

Eeadt. 

One time and three motions. 

178. {First motion.) Eaise the piece slightly 
with the right hand, making a half face to the 
right on the left heel ; carry the right foot to 
the rear, and place it at right angles to the left, 
the hollow of it opposite to and against the left 
heel ; grasp the piece with the left hand at the lower 
band and detach it slightly from the shoulder. 



I 



YOL. 1. SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 



PL. 




Aim— 2^0. ISl. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET II. 47 

179. {Second motion.) Bring down the piece 
with both hands, the barrel upward, the left 
thumb extended along the stock, the butt beloAV 
the right fore-arm, the small of the stock against 
the body and two inches below the right breast, 
the muzzle as high as the eye, the left elbow 
against the side ; place at the same time the right 
thumb on the head of the cock, the other fingers 
under and against the guard. 

180. {Third motion.) Cock, and seize the piece 
at the small of the stock without deranging the 
position of the butt. 

Aim. 

One time and one motion. 

181. Raise the piece with both hands, and 
support the butt against the right shoulder ; the 
left elbow down, the right as high as the shoul- 
der ; incline the head upon the butt, so that the 
right eye may perceive quickly the notch of the 
hausse, the front sight, and the object aimed at, 
the left eye closed, the right thumb extended 
along the stock, the fore-finger on the trigger. 

182. When recruits are formed in two ranks to 
execute the firings, the front rank men will raise 
a little less the right elbow, in order to facilitate 
the aim of the rear rank men. 

183. The rear rank men, in aiming, will each 
carry the right foot about eight inches to the 
right, and towards the left heel of the man next 
on the right, inclining the upper part of the body 
forward. 



48 school of the soldier — part h. 
Fire. 
One time and one motion, 

184. Press the fore-finger against the trigger, 
fire, without lowering or turning the head, and 
remain in this position. 

185. Instructors will be careful to observe 
when the men fire, that they aim at some dis- 
tinct object, and that the barrel be so directed 
that the line of fire and the line of sight be in 
the same vertical plane. They will often cause 
the firing to be executed on ground of different 
inclinations, in order to accustom the men to fire 
at objects either above or below them. 

Load. 

One time and one motion. 

188. Bring down the piece with both hands, 
at the same tim'e face to the front and take the posi- 
tion of load as indicated, IsTo. 163. Each rear rank 
man will bring his right foot by the side of the left. 

187. The men being in this position, the in- 
structor will cause the loading to be continued 
by the commands and means prescribed, ]^o. 163, 
and following. 

188. If) after firing, the instructor should not 
wish the recruits to reload, he will command : 

Shoulder — Arms. 

One time and one motion 



YOL. 1 . SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. Pl^ 




* 



Wien deployed as skirmisher, to aim with rear sig 
M- V at high elevation. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART II, 49 

189. Throw np the piece hriskly with the left 
hand and resume the position of shoulder arms^ 
at the same time face to the front, turning on the 
left heel, and bring the right heel on a line with 
the left. 

190. To accustom the recruits to wait for the 
command ^r^, the instructor, when thej are in 
the position of aim^ will command : 

Recover — Arms. 

One time and one motion, 

191. At the first part of the command, with- 
draw the finger from the trigger ; at the com- 
mand arms^ retake the position of the third mo- 
tion of ready. 

192. The recruits being in the position of the 
third motion of ready ^ if the instructor should 
wish to bring them to a shoulder, he will com- 
mand: 

STiom, Ider — Arms. 

One time and. one motion. 

193. At the command shoulder., place the 
thumb upon the cock, the fore-finger on the 
trigger, half cock, and seize the small of the stock 
with the right hand. At the command arms., 
bring up the piece briskly to the right shoulder, 
and retake the position of shoulder arms. 

5 



50 school of the soldiee — paet ii. 
Remarks on Loading and Fieixg. 

194. Whenever the loadings and firings are to 
be executed, and the cartridge-boxes are slung 
upon the waist-belt, the instructor will cause 
them to be brought to the front. 

195. If Maynard's primer be used the com- 
mand will be 

Load in eight times. 

and the eighth command will be shoulder arms^ 
and executed from return rammer in one time 
and two motions, as follows : 

{First motion.) Raise the piece with the leffc 
hand, and take the position of shoulder arms as 
indicated Ko. 152. 

(Second motion.) Drop the left hand quickly 
by the side. 

196. The recruits being at shoulder arms, 
when the instructor shall wish to fix bayonets, 
he will command : 

Fix — Bayonet. 

One time and three motions, 

197. (First motion.) Grasp the piece with the 
left hand at the height of the shoulder, and de- 
tach it slightly from the shoulder with the right 
hand. 

198. (Second motion.) Quit the piece with the 
right hand, lower it with the left hand, opposite 
the middle of the body, and place the butt be- 



Vol. 1. SCHOOL of the soldier. Pl. 10. 




Cliarge 'bayonet. — No. 202. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART H. 51 

t 

tween the feet without shock; the rammer to 
l\iQ rear, the barrel vertical, the muzzle three 
inches from the body ; seize it with the right 
hand at the upper band, and carry the left hand 
reversed to the handle of the bayonet. If 
the rifle musket be used the barrel will be in- 
clined forward, the muzzle eight inches from the 
body, and the left hand reversed to the handle 
of the bayonet. 

199. {Third motion.) Draw the bayonet from 
the scabbard and fix it on the extremity of 
the barrel ; seize the piece with the left hand, the 
arm extended, the right hand at the upper band. 
If the rifle musket be used the clasp will be 
turned as soon as the bayonet is fixed upon the 
barrel. 

Shoulder — Arms. 

One time and two motions, 

200. {First motion.) Raise the piece with the 
left hand and place it against the right shoulder, 
the rammer to the front : seize the piece at the 
same time with he right hand at the swell of 
the stock, the thumb and fore-finger embracing 
the guard, the right arm nearly extended, 

201. {Second motion.) Drop briskly the left 
hand by the side. 

Charge — Bayonet. 

One time and two motions, 

202. {First motion,) Raise the piece slightly 



52 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PAET H, 

with the right hand and make a half face to the 
right on the left heel ; place the hollow of the 
right foot opposite to, and three inches from the 
left heel, the feet square ; seize the piece at the 
same time with the left hand a little above the 
lower band. 

203. {Second motion.) Bring down the piece 
with both hands, the barrel uppermost, the left 
elbow against the body ; seize the small of the 
stock, at the same time, with the right hand, 
which will be supported against the hip; the 
point of the bayonet as high as the ere. 

Shoulder — Aems. 

One time and two motions, 

204. {First motion.) Throw -jp the piece brisk- 
ly with the left hand in facing to the front, place 
it against the right shoulder, the rammer to the 
front ; turn the right hand so as to embrace the 
guard, slide the left hand to the height of the 
shoulder, the right hand nearly extended. 

205. {Second motion.) Drop the left hand 
smartly by the side. 

Trail — Aems. 

* One time and two motions, 

206. {First motion.) The same as the first mo- 
tion of order arms. 

207. {Second motion.) Incline the muzzle 
slightly to the front, the butt to the rear and 



Yo:>. 1. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. Pl. 11. 




Unfix hayonet.—JSFo. 209. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART II. 53 

about four inches from the ground. The right 
hand supported at the hip, will so hold the piece 
that the rear rank men may not touch with 
their bayonets the men in the front rank. 

Shoulder — Arms. 

208. At the command shoulder^ raise the piece 
perpendicularly in the right hand, the little fin- 
ger in the rear of the barrel ; at the command 
arms^ execute what has been prescribed for the 
shoulder from the position of order arms. 

Unfix — Bayonet. 

X 

One time and three motions. 

209. {First and second motions.) The same as 
the first and second motions of fix l)ayonet^ ex- 
cept that, at the end of the second command, 
the thumb of the right hand will be placed on 
the spring of the sabre-bayonet, and the left hand 
will embrace the handle of the sabre-bayonet and 
the barrel, the thumb extended along the blade. 
If the rifle musket is used, at the end of the second 
command turn the clasp of the bayonet by press- 
ing against it with the thumb of the left hand, 
and then grasp the socket of the bayonet with 
the left hand, the shank resting between the 
thumb and fore-finger, the thumb pointed up. 

210. {Third motion.) Press the thumb of the 
right hand on the spring, wrest off the sabre- 
bayonet, turn it to the right, the edge to the 
front, lower the guard until it touches the right 

5* 



54 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PAET II. 

hand, which will seize the back and the edge of 
the blade between the thumb and first two fin- 
gers, the other fingers holding the piece ; change 
the position of the hand without quitting the han- 
dle, return the sabre-bayonet to the scabbard, and 
seize the piece with the left hand, the arm ex- 
tended. If the rifle musket is used, the follow- 
ing will be the method, viz.: {Third motion.) 
"Wrest off the bayonet, turn it to the right, 
bringing the point of the bayonet down ; change 
the position of the hand without quitting hold 
of the shank of the socket, return the bayonet 
to the scabbard, and seize the piece with the 
left hand, the arm extended. 

Shoulder — ^Aems. 

One time and two motions, 

211. {First motion.) The same as the first mo- 
tion from fix layonet^ No. 200. 

212. {Second motion.) The same as the second 
motion from fix 'bayonet., No. 201. 

Secure — Aems. 

One time and three motions, 

213. {First motion.) The same as the first mo- 
tion of support arms^ No. 140, except with the 
right hand seize the piece at the small of the 
stock. 

214. {Second motion.) Turn the piece with 
both hands, the barrel to the front; bring it op- 




Secure Arms.~^o. 213. 



Vol. 1. SCHOOL of the soldier. 



PL. 13. 




Bight shoulder shift arms. — N'o. 219. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PAET II. 55 

posite the left shoulder, the butt against the hip, 
the left hand at the lower band, the thumb as 
high as the chin and extended on the rammer ; 
the piece erect and detached from the shoulder, 
the left fore-arm against the piece. 

215. {Third motion.) Keverse the piece, pass 
it under the left arm, the left hand remaining at 
the lower band, the thumb on the rammer to 
prevent it from sliding out, the little finger rest- 
ing against the hip, the right hand falling at the 
same time by the side. 

Shoulder — Aems. 

One time and three motions. 

216. {First motion.) Eaise the piece with the 
left hand, and seize it with the right hand at the 
small of the stock. The piece erect and detach- 
ed from the shoulder, the butt against the hip, 
the left fore-arm along the piece. 

217. {Second motion.) The same as the second 
motion of shoulder arms from a support. 

218. (Third motion.) The same as the third 
motion of shoulder arms from a support. 

Right shoulder shift — Aems. - 

One time and two motions. 

219. {First motion.) Detach the piece perpen- 
dicularly from the shoulder w^ith the right hand, 
and seize it with the left between the lower band 
and guide-sight, raise the piece, the left hand at 



56 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PART II. 

the height of the shoulder and four inches from 
it; place, at the same time, the right hand on 
the butt, the beak between the first two fingers, 
the other two fingers under the butt plate. 

220. {Second motion,) Quit the piece with the 
left hand, raise and place the piece on the right 
shoulder with the right hand, the lock plate up- 
ward; let fall at the same time, the left hand 
by the side. 

Shoulder — Aems. 

One time and two motions, * 

221. {First motion.) Eaise the piece perpen- 
dicularly by extending the right arm to its full 
length, the rammer to the front; at the same 
time seize the piece with the left hand between 
the lower band and guide sight. 

222. {Second motion.) Quit the butt with the 
right hand, which will immediately embrace the 
guard, lower the piece to the position of shoulder 
arms, slide up the left hand to the height of the 
shoulder, the fingers extended and closed. Drop 
the left hand by the side. 

223. The men being at support arms, the in- 
structor will sometimes cause pieces to be brought 
to the right shoulder. To this effect he will 
command : 

RigM shoulder shift — Arms. 

One time and two motioiu. 

224. (First motion?) Seize the piece with the 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PAET II. 57 

right hand, below and near the left fore-arm, 
place the left hand under the butt, the heel of 
the butt between the first two fingers. 

225. {Second motion.) Turn the piece with the 
left hand, the lock plate upward, carry it to the 
right shoulder, the left hand still holding the butt, 
the muzzle elevated ; hold the piece in this posi- 
tion and place the right hand upon the butt, as is 
prescribed No. 219, and let fall the left hand by 
the side. 

Support — Aems. 

One time and two motions. 

226. {First motion.) The same as the first mo- 
tion of shoulder arms^ Xo. 221. 

227. {Second motion) Turn the piece with both 
hands, the barrel to the front, carry it opposite 
the left shoulder, slip the right hand to the small 
of the stock, place the left fore-arm extended on 
the breast, as is prescribed isTo. 141, and let fall 
the right hand by the side. 

Arms — At will. 

One time and one motion, 

228. At this command, carry the piece at pleas- 
ure on either shoulder, with one or both hands, 
the muzzle elevated. 

Shoulder — Arms. 

One time and one motion. 



58 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PAET II. 

229. At this command, retake quickly the posi- 
tion of shoulder arms. 

230. The recruits being at ordered arms, when 
the instructor shall wish to cause the pieces to be 
placed on the ground, he will command: 

Ground — Aems. 

One time and two motions, 

231. {First motion.) Turn the piece with the 
right hand, the barrel to the left, at the same time 
seize the cartridge box with the left hand, bend 
the body, advance the left foot, the heel opposite 
the lower band ; lay the piece on the ground with 
the right hand, the toe of the butt on a line with 
the right toe, the knees slightly bent, the right 
heel raised. 

232. {Second motion,) Else up, bring the left 
foot by the side of the right, quit the cartridge box 
with the left hand, and drop the hands by the 
side. 

Raise — Aems. 

One tim.e and two motions. 

233. {First motion.) Seize the cartridge box 
with the left hand, bend the body, advance the 
left foot opposite the lower band, and seize the 
piece with the right hand. 

234. {Second motion.) Raise the piece, bringing 
the left foot by the side of the right ; turn the 
piece with the right hand, the rammer to the 
front ; at the same time quit the cartridge box 



Vol. 1. SCHOOL of the soldier. Pl. 14, 




Ground Arms. — No. 231. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PAET IT. 59 

with the left hand, and drop this hand by the 
side. 

IXSPECTION OF AEMS. 

235. The recruits being at ordered arms^ and 
having the bayonet in the scabbard, if the in- 
structor wishes to canse an inspection of arms, he 
will command: 

Inspection — Aems. 

One time and two motions. 

236. {First motion.) Seize the piece with the 
left hand below and near the upper band, carry it 
with both hands opposite the middle of the body, 
the butt between the feet, the rammer to the rear, 
the barrel vertical, the muzzle about three inches 
from the body ; (should the rifle musket be used, 
the muzzle will be about eight inches from the 
body) ; carry the left hand reversed to the bay- 
onet, draw it from the scabbard and fix it on the 
barrel ; grasp the piece with the left hand below 
and near the upper band, seize the rammer with 
the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand bent, 
the other fingers closed. 

237. {Second motion.) Draw the rammer as has 
been explained in loading, and let it glide to the 
bottom of the bore, replace the piece with the 
left hand opposite the right shoulder, and retake 
the position of ordered arins. 

238. The instructor will then inspect in sue- 
cession the piece of each recruit, in passing along 
the front of the rank. Each, as the instructor 
reaches him, will raise smartly his piece with 



60 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PART II. 

his right hand, seize it with the left between the 
lower band and guide sight, the lock to the front, 
the left hand at the height of the chin, the piece 
opposite to the left eye ; the instructor will take 
it with the right hand at the handle, and, after 
inspecting it, will return it to the recruit, who 
will receive it back with the right hand, and re- 
place it in the position of ordered arms. 

239. When the instructor shall have passed 
him, each recruit will retake the position pre- 
scribed at the command inspection^ return the 
rammer, unfix the 'bayonet^ and resume the posi- 
lion of ordered arms. 

240. If, instead of impection of arms .^ the in- 
structor should merely wish to cause bayonets to 
be fixed, he will command : . 

Fix — Bayonet. 

241. Take the position indicated l^To. 236, fix 
bayonets as has been explained, and immediately 
resume the position of ordered arms. 

242. If i^ b® ^^ ^^ish of the instructor, after 
firing, to ascertain whether the pieces have been 
discharged, he will command : 

Spring — Eammees. 

243. Put the rammer in the barrel, as has been 
explained above, and immediately retake the po- 
sition of ordered arms. 

244. The instructor, for the purpose stated, can 
take the rammer by the small end, and spring it 
in the barrel, or cause each recruit to make it ring 
in the barrel. 



SCHOOL OF THE 80LDIEE PAET II. 61 

245. Each recruit, after the instructor passes 
him, will return rammer, and resume the position 
of ordered arms. 

Bemarks on the Manual of Arms. 

246. The manual of arms frequently distorts 
•the persons of recruits before thej acquire ease 

and confidence in the several positions. The in- 
structor will therefore frequently recur to ele- 
mentary principles in the course of the lessons. 

247. Recruits are also extremely liable to curve 
the sides and back, and to derange the shoulders, 
especially in loading. Consequently, the instruc- 
tor will not cause them to dwell too long at a 
time in one position. 

248. When, after some days of exercise in the 
manual of arms, the four men shall be well estab- 
lished in their use, the instructor will always 
terminate the lesson by marching the men for 
some time in one rank, and at one pace apart, in 
common and quick time, in order to confirm them 
more and more in the mechanism of the step ; 
he will also teach them to mark time, and to 
change step, which will be executed in the follow- 
ing manner : 

TO MAEK TIME. 

249. The four men marching in the direct step, 
' the instructor will command : 

1. Marie time. 2. Maech. 

250. At the second command, which will be 
6 



62 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET II. 

given at the instant a foot is coming to the 
ground, the recruits will make a semblance of 
marching, by bringing the heels by the side of 
each other, and observing the cadence of the 
step, by raising each foot alternately without ad- 
vancing. 

251. The instructor wishing the direct step tc 
be resumed, will command : • 

1. Forward, 2. March. 

252. At the second command, which will be 
given as prescribed above, the recruits will re- 
take the step of twenty-eight inches. 

TO CHANGE STEP. 

253. The squad being in march, the instructor 
will command : 

1. Change step, 2. March. 

254. At the second command, which will be 
given at the instant either foot is coming to the 
ground, bring the foot which is in rear by the side 
of that which is in front, and step off again with 
the foot which was in front. 

TO MARCH BACKWARD. 

255. The instructor wishing the squad to 
inarch backward, will command : 

1. Squad 'backward, 2. March. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PART II. 63 

256. At the second command, the recruits will 
step off smartly with the left foot fourteen inch- 
es to the rear, reckoning from heel to heel, and so 
on with the feet in succession till the command 
Jialt^ which will always be preceded by the cau- 
tion squad. The men will halt at this command, 
and bring back the foot in front by the side of 
the other. 

257. This step will always be executed in 
quick time. 

258. The instructor will be watchful that the 
recruits march straight to the rear, and that the 
erect position of the body and the piece be not 
deranged. 

Lesson III. 

TO LOAD IIT FOUR TIMES. 

259. The object of this lesson is to prepare the 
recruits to load at will, and to cause them to dis- 
tinguish the times which require the greatest 
regularity and attention, such as charge cartridge^ 
ram cartridge^ and prime. It will be divided as 
follows : 

260. The first time will be executed at the end 
of the command ; the three others at the com- 
mands, two^ three and/b^r. 

The instructor will command : 

1. Load in four times. 2. Load. 

261. Execute the times to include charge car- 
tridge. 



64 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PAET H. 

Two. 

262. Execute the times to include ram car- 
tridge. 

Theee. 

263. Execute the times to include prime. 

EOIJE. 

264. Execute the time of shoulder arms. 

TO LOAD AT WILL. 

265. The instructor will next teach loading at 
will, which will he executed as loading in four 
times, but continued, and without resting on 
either of the times. He will command : 

1. Load at icill, 2. Load. 

266. The instructor will habituate the recruits, 
by degrees, to load with the greatest possible 
promptitude, each without regulating himself by 
his neighbor, and above all without waiting for 
Mm. 

267. The cadence prescribed ^o. 136, is not 
applicable to loading in four times, or at will. 

Lessox IY. 

Firings. 

268. The firings are direct or oblique, and will 
be executed as follows : 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART IL 65 

THE DIRECT FIRE. 

269. Tlie instructor will give the following 
commands : 

1. Fire ly Squad. 2. Squad. 3. Keady. 4. 
Aim. 5. Fire. 6. Load. 

270. These several commands will be executed 
as has been prescribed in the Manual of Arms. 
At the third command, the men will come to the 
position of ready ^ as heretofore explained. At 
the fourth thej will aim according to the rank 
in which each may find himself placed, the rear- 
rank men inclining forward a little the upper part 
of the body, in order that their pieces may reach 
as much beyond the front rank as possible. 

271. At the sixth command, they will load 
their pieces and return immediately to the posi- 
tion of ready. 

272. The instructor will recommence the firing 
by the commands : 

1. Squad. 2. Aim. 3. Fire. 4. Load. 

273. When the instructor wishes the firing to 
cease, he will command : 

! FIRINO. 

274. At this command the men will cease fir- 
ing, but will load their pieces if unloaded, and 
afterward bring them to a shoulder. 

6* 



66 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PART 11. 

OBLIQUE FIEINGS. 

275. The oblique firings will be executed to the 
• uight and left, and by the same commands as the 

direct fire, with this single difference — the com- 
mand aim will always be preceded by the cau- 
tion, right or left oblique. 

POSITION OF THE TWO EAIs^KS IX THE OBLIQUE 
FIEE TO THE EIGHT. 

276. At the command ready^ the two ranks 
will execute what has been prescribed for the 

-direct fire. 

277^ At the cautionary command, right ob- 
lique, the two ranks will throw back the right 
shoulder, and look steadily at the object to be 
hit. 

278. At the command oAm^ each front-rank 
man will aim to the right without deranging the 
feet ; each rear-rank man will advance the left 
foot about eight inches toward the right heel of 
the man next on the right of his file leader, and 
aim to the right, inclining the upper part of the 
body forward, and bending a little the left knee. 

POSITION OF THE TWO EANKS IN THE OBLIQUE 
FIEE TO THE LEFT. 

279. At the cautionary commana left oblique, 
f.the two ranks will throw back the left shoulder, 

and look steadily at the object to be hit. 

280. At the command cnm, the front rank will 
vtake aim to the left without deranging the feet; 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET II. 67 

each man in the rear rank will advance the right 
foot about eight inches toward the right heel of 
the man next on the right of his file leader, and 
aim to the left, inclining the upper part of the 
body forward, and bending a little the right 
knee. 

281. In both cases, at the command load^ the 
men of each rank will come to the position of 
load as prescribed in the direct fire ; the rear 
rank men bringing back the foot which is to the 
right and front by the side of the other. Each 
man will continue to load as if isolated. 

TO FIEE BY FILE. 

282. The fire by file will be executed by the 
two ranks, the files of which will fire succes- 
sively, and without regulating on each other, ex- 
cept for the first fire. 

283. The instructor will command : 

1. Fire l)y file. 2. Squad. 3. Ready. 4. Com- 
mence FIEING. 

284. At the third command, the two ranks 
will take the j)osition prescribed in the direct 
lire. 

285. At the fourth command, the file on the 
right will aim and fire ; the rear-rank man in 
aiming will take the position indicated l^o. 183. 

286. The men of this file will load their pieces 
briskly and fire a secor.d time ; reload and fire 
again, and so on in continuation. 

287. Tlie second file will aim, at the instant 



68 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET n. 

the first brings down pieces to reload, and will 
conform in all respects to tliat which has just 
been prescribed for the first file. 

288. After the first fire, the front and rear rank 
men will not be required to fire at the same tim.e, 

289. Each man, after loading, will return to 
the position of ready and continue the fire. 

290. When the instructor wishes the fire to 
cease, he will command : 

Ceme — Fieln-g. 

291. At this command, the men will cease 
firing. If they have fired, thej will load their 
pieces and bring them to a shoulder; if at the 
position of ready, they will half-cock and shoul- 
der arms. If in the position of aim^ they will 
bring down their pieces, half-cock, and shoulder 
arms. 

TO FIEE BY EANK. 

292. The fire by rank will be executed by each 
entire rank, alternately. 

293. The instructor will command : 

1. Fire hy rank. 2. Squad. 3. Eeadt. 4. Rear 
rarik. 5. Aim. 6. Fiee. 7. Load. 

294. At the third command, the two ranks 
will take the position of ready .^ as prescribed in 
the direct fire. 

295. At the seventh command, the rear rank 
will execute that which has been prescribed in 



J^^-"-- ^- SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. Pl. 15. 




To fire Icneehng.—Js^o. 301. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PART II. OU 

the direct fire, and afterward take the position 
of ready. 

296. As soon as the instructor sees several 
men of the rear rank in the position of ready, he 
will command : 

1. Front rank. 2. Aim. 3. Fire. 4. Load. 

297. At these commands, the men in the front 
rank will execute what has been prescribed for 
the rear rank, but they will not step off with the 
right foot. 

298. The instructor will recommence the firing 
by the rear rank, and will thus continue to alter- 
nate from rank to rank, until he shall wish the 
firing to cease, when he will command, cease 
firing^ which will be executed as heretofore pre- 
scribed. 

Lesson Y. 

To Fire and Load Kneeling 

299. In this exercise, the squad will be sup- 
posed loaded and drawn up in one rank. The 
instruction will be given to each man individ- 
ually, without times or motions, and in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

300. The instructor will command : 

Fire and Load Kneeling. 

301. At this command, the man on the right 
of the squad will move forward three paces and 
halt ; then carry the right foot to the rear and to 



TO SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART II. 

the right of the left heel, and in a position conven- 
ient for placing the right knee upon the ground in 
bending the left leg : place the right knee upon 
the ground; lower the piece, the left fore-arm 
supported upon the thigh on the same side, the 
right hand on the small of the stock, the butt 
resting on the right thigh, the left hand support- 
ing the piece near the lower band. 

302. He will next move the right leg to the 
left around the knee supported on the ground, 
until this leg is nearly perpendicular to the direc- 
tion of the left foot, and thus seat himself com- 
fortably on the right heel. 

303. Raise the piece with the right hand and 
support it with the left, holding it near the lower 
band, the left elbow resting on the left thigh near 
the knee ; seize the hammer with the thumb, the 
fore-finger under the guard, cock and seize the 
piece at the small ^f the stock ; bring the piece 
to the shoulder, aim smdjire. 

304. Bring the piece down as soon as it is 
fired, and support it with the left hand, the butt 
resting against the right thigh ; carry the piece 
to the rear rising on the knee, the barrel down- 
ward, the butt resting on the ground ; in this 
position support the piece with the left hand at 
the upper band, draw cartridge with the right 
and load the piece, ramming the ball, if necessary, 
with both hands. 

305. When loaded bring the piece to the front 
with the left hand, which holds it at the upper 
band; seize it at the same time with the right 
hand at the small of the stock ; turn the piece, 
the barrel uppermost and nearly horizontal, the 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART II. Tl 

left elbow resting on the left tliigh ; half cock, 
remove the old cap and prime, rise, and return to 
the ranks. 

306. The second man will then be taught what 
has just been prescribed for the first, and so on 
through the remainder of the squad. 

TO FIEE AND LOAD LYING. 

307. In this exercise the squad will be in one 
rank and loaded; the instruction will be given 
individually and without times or motions. 

308. The instructor will command : 

FiEE AND Load Lying. 

309. At this command, the man on the right 
of the squad will move forward three paces and 
halt ; he will then bring his piece to an order, 
drop on both knees, and place himself on the 
ground flat on liis belly. In this position he will 
support the piece nearly horizontal with the left 
hand, holding it near the lower band, the butt 
end of the piece and the left elbow resting on 
the ground, the barrel uppermost ; cock the piece 
with the right hand, and carry this hand to the 
small of the stock; raise the piece with both 
hands, press the butt against the shoulder, and, 
resting on both elbows, aim and Jire. 

310. As soon as he has fired, bring the piece 
down and turn upon his left side, still resting on 
his left elbow ; bring back the piece until the 
cock is opposite his breast, the butt end resting 
on the ground; take out a cartridge with the 



72 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PART II. 

right hand ; seize the small of the stock with this 
hand, holding the cartridge with the thumb and 
two first fingers ; he will then throw himself on 
his back, still holding the piece with both hands ; 
carry the piece to the rear, place the butt be- 
tween the heels, the barrel up, the muzzle ele- 
vated. In this position, charge cartridge, draw 
rammer, ram cartridge, and return rammer. 

3il. When finished loading, the man will turn 
again upon his left side, remove the old cap and 
prime, then raise the piece vertically, rise, turn 
about, and resume his position in the ranks. 

312. The second man will be taught what 
has just been prescribed for the first, and so on 
throughout the squad. 

Lessoij YI. 
Bayonet Exercise. 

313. The bayonet exercise in this book will 
be confined to two movements, the guard against 
infantry^ and the guard against cavalry. The 
men will be placed in one rank, with two paces 
interval, and, being at shoulder arms, the instruc- 
tor will command : 

1. Guard against Infantry. 2. Gtjaed. 

One time and two motions. 

314. {First motion.) Make a half face to the 
right, turning on both heels, the feet square to 
each other; at the same time raise the piece 



YOL. 1. SOIIOOL OP THE SOLDIER. Pl. 16. 




Guard against Infantry, — No. 314. 



YOL. 1. SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. PL. 17. 




.s^' 



Guard, against Caxalry.—No. 317. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PAET II. T3 

slightly, and seize it with the left; hand ahove 
and near the lower band. 

315. {Second motion.) Carry the right foot 
twenty inches perpendicularly to the rear, the 
right heel on the prolongation of the left, the 
knees sUghtly bent, the weight of the body rest- 
ing equally on both legs ; lower the piece with 
both hands, the barrel uppermost, the left elbow 
against the body ; seize the piece at the same 
time with the right hand at the small of the 
stock, the arras falling naturally, the point of the 
bayonet slightly elevated. 

Shou Ider — Aems. 

One time and one motion, 

316. Throw up the piece with the left hand, 
and place it against the right shoulder, at the 
same time bring the right heel by the side of the 
left and face to the front. 

1. Guard against Cavalry. 2. Guard. 

One time and two motions. 

317. Both motions the same as for guard 
against infantry^ except that the right hand will 
be supported against the hip, and the bayonet 
held at the height of the eye, as in charge hay- 
onet. 

Shoulder — Aems. 

One time and one motion. 



74: SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET IH. 

318. Spring up the piece with the left hand 
and place it against the right shoulder, at the 
same time bring the right heel hj the side of the 
left, and face to the front. 



PAET THIRD. 

319. "VThen the recruits are well established in 
the principles and mechanism of the step^ the po- 
sition ofthelody^ and the manual of arms, the in- 
structor will unite eight men, at least, and twelve 
men at most, in order to teach them the princi- 
ples of alignment, the principles of the touch of 
elbows in marching to the front, the principles of 
the march by the flank, wheeling from a halt, 
wheeling in marching, and the change of direc- 
tion to the side of the guide. He will place the 
squad in one rank, elbow to elbow, and number 
the men from right to left. 

Lesson I. 
Alignments, 

320. The instructor will at first teach the re- 
cruits to align themselves, man bv man, in order 
the- better to make them comprehend the princi- 
ples of alignment; to this end, he will command 
the two men on the right flank to march two 
paces to the front, and having aligned them, he 
will caution the remainder of the squad to move 
up, as they may be successively called, each by 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PART III. 75 

his number, and align themselves successively on 
the line of the first tAvo men. 

321. Each recruit, as designated by his number 
will turn the head and eyes to the right, as pre- 
scribed in the first lesson of the first part, and 
will march in quich time two faces forward^ short- 
ening the last, so as to find himself about six 
inches behind tlie new alignment, which he ought 
never to pass : he will next move up steadily by 
steps of two or three inches, the hams extended, 
to the side of the man next to him on the align- 
ment, so that, without deranging the head, the 
line of the eyes, or that of the shoulders, he may 
find himself in the exact line of his neighbor, 
whose elbow he will lightly touch without open- 
ing his own. 

322. The instructor seeing the rank well align- 
ed, will command : 

Feont. 

323. At this, the recruits will turn eyes to the 
front, and remain firm. 

324. Alignments to the left will be executed 
on the same principles. 

325. When the recruits shall have thus learn- 
ed to align themselves, man by man, correctly, 
and without groping or jostling, the instructor 
will cause the entire rank to align itself at once 
by the command : 

Ricjlit (or leff) — Deess. 

326. At this the rank, except the two men 



76 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PART III. 

placed in advance as a basis of alignment, will 
move up in quick time, and place themselves on 
the new line, according to the principles pre- 
scribed No. 321. 

327. The instructor, placed five or six paces 
in front, and facing the rank, will carefully ob- 
serve that the principles are followed, and then 
pass to the flank that has served as a basis, to 
verify the alignment. 

328. The instructor, seeing the greater num- 
ber of the rank aligned, will command • 

rRo:NT. 

329. The instructor may afterward order this 
or that ^Q forward or haAik^ designating each by 
its number. The file or files designated, only, 
will slightly turn the head toward the basis, to 
judge how much they ought to move up or back, 
steadily place themselves on the line, and then 
turn eyes to the front, without a particular com- 
mand to that effect. 

330. Alignments to the rear will be executed 
on the same principles, the recruits stepping back 
a little beyond the line, and then dressing up ac- 
cording to the principles prescribed ISTo. 321, the 
instructor commanding :. 

Right (or left) 'backward — Dress. 

331. After each alignment, the instructor will 
examine the position of the men, and cause the 
rank to come to ordered arms, to prevent too 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PAET III. 77 

much fatigue, and also tlie danger of negligence 
at shouldered arms. 

Lessor IL 

332. The men having learned, in the first and 
second parts to march with steadiness in com- 
mon time, and to take steps equal in length and 
swiftness, will be exercised in the third part only 
in quich time^ double quich time^ and the run ; 
the instructor will cause them to execute succes- 
sively, at these different gaits, the march to the 
front, the facing about in marching, the march 
by the flank, the wheels at a halt and in march- 
ing, and the changes of direction to the side of 
the guide. 

333. The instructor will inform the recruits 
that at the command march^ they will always 
move off in quiclc time^ unless this command 
should be preceded by that of double quiclc, 

TO MAECH TO THE FEONT. 

334. The rank being correctly aligned, when 
the instructor shall wish to cause it to march by 
the front, he will place a well instructed man on 
the right or the left, according to the side on which 
he may wish the guide to be, and command : 

1. Squad^ forward. 2. Guide right (or left). 
3. Maech. 

335. At the command mare\ the rank will 
step off smartly with the left foot ; the guide will 

t* 



78 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET III. 

take care to marcli straight to tlie front, keeping 
liis shoulders ahYavs in a square with that hne. 

333. The instructor will observe, in marching 
to the front, that the men touch lightly the el- 
bow toward the side of the guide ; that they do 
not open out the left elbow, nor the right arm ; 
that they yield to pressure coming from the side of 
the guide, and resist that coming from the oppo- 
site side ; that they recover by insensible degrees 
the slight touch of the elbow, if lost ; that they 
maintain the head direct to the front, no matter 
on which side the guide may be ; and if found 
before or behind the alignment, that the man 
in fault corrects himself by shortening or length- 
ening the step, by degrees, almost insensible. 

337. The instructor vrill labor to cause recruits 
to comprehend that the alignment can only be 
preserved, in marching, by the regularity of the 
step, the touch of the elbow, and the mainten- 
ance of the shoulders in a square with the line of 
direction : that if, for example, the step of some 
be longer than that of others, or if some march 
faster than others, a separation of elbows, and a 
loss of the alignment, would be inevitable ; that if 
(it being required that the head should be direct to 
t 'le front) they do no!: strictly observe the touch of 
elbows, it Vv'ould be imposslLle for an individual to 
j adge whether he marches abreast with his neigh- 
bor, or not, and whether there be not an interval 
between them. 

glTj. Tlie impulsion of the Oj^uick step having a 
tendency to make men too easy and tree in their 
movements, the instructor will be careful to regu- 
late the cadence of this step, and to habituate 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET HI. 79 

them to preserve always the erectness of the 
body, and the due length of the pace. 

339. The men being well established in the 
principles of the direct march, the instructor 
will exercise them in marching obliquely. The 
rank being in march, the instructor will com- 
mand: 

1. Eiglit (or left) ollique. 2. Maech. 

340. At the second command, each man will 
make a half face to the right (or left), and will 
then march straight-forward in the new direction. 
As the men no longer touch elbows, they will 
glance along the shoulders of the nearest files, 
toward the side to which they are obliquing, 
and will regulate their steps so that the shoulder 
shall always be behind that of their next neigh- 
bor on that side, and that his head shall conceal 
the heads of the other men in the rank. Besides 
this, the men should preserve the same length of 
pace, and the same degree of obliquity. 

341. The instructor wishing to resume the 
primitive direction, will command : 

1. ToTuarl. 2. Uaech. 

342. At the second command, each man will 
make a half face to the left (or right), and all will 
then march straight to the front, conforming to 
the principles of the direct march. 



80 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET HI. 

TO MAECH TO THE FEOXT IN DOUBLE QUICK TIME. 

343. When the several principles, heretofore 
explained, have become familiar to the recruits, 
and they shall be well estabUshed in the position 
of the bodj, the bearing of arms, and the mechan- 
ism, length, and swiftness of the step, the in- 
structor will pass them from quicJc to douMe quick 
time, and the reverse, observing not to make 
them march obliquely in double quick time, till 
thej are well established in the cadence of this 
step. 

344. The squad being at a march in quick time, 
the instructor will command : 

1. Double quick. 2. Maech. 

345. At the command march^ which will be 
given when either foot is coming to the ground, 
the squad will step off in double quick time. The 
men will endeavor to follow the principles laid 
down in the first part of this book, and to pre- 
serve the alignment. 

346. When the instructor wishes the squad to 
resume the step in quick time, he will command : 

1. Quick time, 2. Maech. 

247, At the command marcJi^ which will be 
given when either foot is coming to the ground, 
the squad will retake the step in quick time. 

348. The squad being in march, the instructor 
will halt it by the commands and means pre- 
scribed ISTos. 105 and 106. The command halt^ 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAKT III. 81 

will be given an instant before the foot is ready- 
to be placed on the ground. 

349. The squad being in march in double quick 
time, the instructor will occasionally cause it to 
mark time by the commands prescribed N'o. 249. 
The men will then mark double quick time, with- 
out altering the cadence of the step. He will also 
cause them to pass from the direct to the oblique 
step, and reciprocally, conforming to what has 
been prescribed Ko. 339, and following. 

350. The squad being at a halt, the instructor 
will cause it to march in double quick time, by 
preceding the command march^ by double quicks 

351. The instructor will endeavor to regulate 
well the cadence of the step. 

TO FACE ABOUT I2T MAECHINa. 

352. If the squad be marching in quick, or 
double quick time, and the instructor should wish 
to march it in retreat, he will command : 

1. Squad right about. 2. Maech. 

353. At the command marcJi^ which will be 
given at the instant the left foot is coming to the 
ground, the recruit will bring this foot to the 
ground, and turning on it, will face to the rear ; 
he will then place the right foot in the liew di- 
rection, and step off with the left foot. 

354. If the instructor should wish merely to 
face the squad about, without marching it in re- 
treat, he will command : 



82 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART III. 

1. Squad right about. 2. Halt. 

355. At the command Jialt^ which will be given 
the instant the left foot is coming to the ground, 
the recruit will face about as prescribed ISTo. 353 ; 
he will then place the right foot by the side of 
the left. 

TO MARCH BACKWARD. 

356. The squad being at a halt, if the instruc- 
tor should wish to march it in the back step, he 
will command : 

1. Squad 'backward. 2. Guide left (or right.) 
3. March. 

357. The back step will be executed bj the 
means prescribed Xo. 256. 

353. The instructor, in this step, will be watch- 
ful that the men do not lean on each other. 

359. As the march to the front in quick time 
should only be executed at shouldered arms, the 
instructor, in order not to fatigue the men too 
much, and also to prevent negligence in gait and 
position, will halt the squad from time to time, 
and cause arms to be ordered. 

360. Ih marching at double quich time^ the 
men will always carry their pieces on the right 
shoul^r or at a trail. This rule is general. 

361. If the instructor shall wish the pieces car- 
ried at a trail he will give the command trail 
arms., before the command double quick. If, on 
the contrary, this command be not given, the 
men wiU shift their pieces to the right shoulder 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART III. 83 

at the command double quick. In either case, at 
the command halt^ the men will bring their pieces 
to the position of shoulder arms. This rule is 
general. 

Lesson III. 

The March by the Flank. 

362. The rank being at a halt, and correctly 
aligned, the instructor will command : 

1. Squad., right — ^Face. 2. Forward, 3. Maeoh. 

363. At the last part of the first command, 
the rank will face to the right ; the even num- 
bered men, after facing to the right, will step 
quickly to the right side of the odd numbered 
men, the latter standing fast, so that when the 
movement is executed, the men will be formed 
into files of two men abreast. 

364. At the third command, the squad will 
step off smartly with the left foot ; the files keep- 
ing aligned, and preserving their intervals. 

365. The march by the left flank will be exe- 
cuted by the same commands, substituting the 
word left for right., and by inverse means ; in 
this case, the even numbered men, after facing to 
the left will stand fast, and the od:I numbered 
will place themselves on their left. 

366. The instructor will place a well instructed 
soldier by the side of the recruit who is at the 
head of the rank, to regulate the step, and to con- 
duct him ; and it will be enjoined on this recruit 
to march always elbow to elbow with the soldier. 



84 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PART III. 

367. The instructor will cause to be observed 
in the march, by the flank, the following rules : 

That the step he executed according to the principles pre- 
scribed for the direct step ; 

Because these principles, without which men 
placed elbow to elbow, in the same rank, cannot 
preserve unity and harmony of movement, are 
of a more necessary observance in marching in 
file. 

That the head of the man who immediately precedes, 
covers the heads of all who are in front; 

Because it is the most certain rule by which 
each man may maintain himself in the exact line 
of the file. 

368. The instructor will place himself habitu- 
ally five or six paces on the flank of the rank 
marching in file, to watch over the execution 
of the principles prescribed above. He will also 
place himself sometimes in its rear, halt, and suf- 
fer it to pass fifteen or twenty paces, the better 
to see whether the men cover each other accu- 
rately. 

369. When he shall wish to halt the rank, 
marching by the flank, and to cause it to face to 
the front, he will command : 

1. Squad, 2. Halt. 3. Feoitt. 

370. At the second command, the rank will 
halt, and afterward no man will stk, although he 



'SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PAET III. 85 

may have lost his distance. This prohibition is 
necessary, to habituate the men to a constant 
preservation of their distances. 

371. At the third command, each man will 
front by facing to the left, if marching by the 
right flank, and by a face to the right, if march- 
ing by the left flank. The rear-rank men will at 
the same time move quickly into their places, so 
as to form the squad again into one rank. 

372. When the men have become accustomed 
to marching by the flank, the instructor will 
cause them to change direction by file ; for this 
purpose, he will command : 

1. By file left (or right). 2. March. 

373. At the command march, the first file will 
change direction to the left (or right) in describ- 
ing a .small arc of a circle, and will then march 
straight-forward ; the two men of this file, in 
wheeling, will keep up the touch of the elbows, 
and the man on the side to which the wheel is 
made, will shorten the first three or four steps. 
Each file will come successively to wheel on the 
same spot where that which preceded it wheeled. 

374. The instructor will also cause the squad 
to face by the right or left flank in marching, and 
for this purpose will command : 

1. Squad ly the right (or left) flanlc. 2. March. 

375. At the second command, which will be 
given a little before either foot comes to the 
ground, the recruits will turn the body, plant 



bb SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER PAET III. 

the foot that is raised in the new direction, and 
step off with the other foot without altering the 
cadence of the step ; the men will double or un- 
aouble rapidly. 

376. If in facing by the right or the left flank, 
the squad should face to the rear, the men will 
come into one rank, agreeably to the principles 
indicated No. 371. It is to be remarked, that it 
is the men who are in the rear who always move 
up to form into single rank, and in such manner 
as never to invert the order of the numbers in 
the rank. 

377. If, when the squad has been faced to the 
rear, the instructor should cause it to face by 
the left flank, it is the even numbers who will 
double by moving to the left of the odd numbers ; 
but if by the right flank, it is the odd numbers who 
will double to the right of the even numbers. 

378. This lesson, like the preceding one, will 
t)e practised with pieces at a shoulder; but the 
instructor may, to give relief by change, occa- 
sionally order support arnis^ and he will require 
of the recruits marching in this position as much 
regularity as in the former. 

379. If the instructor should wish merely to 
face the squad by the flank, without marching 
forward, he will command : 

1. Squad hy the right (or left) flanlc, 2. Halt. 

380. At the command lialt^ the recruit will 
face as prescribed. No. 375 ; he will then place the 
foot that is raised by the side of the other. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PAET III. 87 

THE MARCH BY THE FLANK IN DOUBLE QUICK 
TIME. 

381. The principles of the march by the flank 
in double quick time, are the same as in quick 
time. The instructor will give the commands 
prescribed N'o. 362, taking care always to give 
the command double quick before that oi march. 

382. He will pay the greatest attention to the 
cadence of the step. 

383. The instructor will cause the change of 
direction, and the march by the flank, to be exe- 
cuted in double quick time, by the same com- 
mands, and according to the same principles, as 
in quick time. 

384. The instructor will cause the pieces to be 
carried either on the right shoulder or at a trail. 

385. The instructor will sometimes march the 
squad by the flank, without doubling the files. 

383. The principles of this march are the same 
as in two ranks, and it will always be executed 
in quick time. 

387. The instructor will give the commands 
prescribed, Xo. 362, but he will be careful to 
caution the squad not to double files. 

388. The instructor will be watchful that the 
men do not bend their knees unequally, which 
would cause them to tread on the heels of the 
men in front, and also to lose the cadence of the 
step and their distances. 

389. The various movements in this lesson will 
be executed in single rank. In the changes of 
direction, the leading man will change direction 
without altering the length or the cadence of the 



88 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET IH. 

step. The instructor will recall to the attention 
of the men, that in facing by the right or left flank 
in marching, they will not double, but march in 
one rank. 

Lesson TV. 
"Wheelings. 

GENEEAL PEINCIPLES OF WHEELING. 

390. Wheelings are of two kinds : from halts, 
or on fixed pivots, and in march,, or on movable 
pivots. 

391. "Wheeling on a fixed pivot takes place in 
passing a corps from the order in battle to the 
order in column, or from the latter to the former. 

392. Wheels in marching take place in changes 
of direction in column, as often as this movement 
is executed to the side opposite to the guide. 

393. In wheels from a halt, the pivot-man only 
turns in his place, without advancing or receding. 

394. In the wheels in marching, the pivot takes 
steps of nine or eleven inches, according as the 
squad is marching in quick or double quick time, 
so as to clear the wheeling-point, which is neces- 
sary, in order that the subdivisions of a column 
may change direction without losing their dis- 
tances, as will be explained in the School of the 
Company. 

395. the man on the wheeling-flank will take 
the fall step of twenty-eight inches, or thirty- 
three inches, according to the gait. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PAET III. 89 

WHEELING FEOM A HALT, OE ON A FIXED PIYOT. 

396. The rank being at a halt, the instructor 
will place a well-instructed man on the wheeling- 
flank to conduct it, and then command : 

1. By squad^ right wheel. 2. Maech. 

397. At the second command, the rank will 
step off with the left foot, turning at the same 
time the head a little to the left, the eyes fixed 
on the line of the eyes of the men to their left ; 
the pivot-man will merely mark time in gradually 
turning his body, in order to conform himself to 
the movement of the marching flank ; the man 
who conducts this flank will take steps of twenty- 
eight inches, and from the first step advance a 
little the left shoulder, cast his eyes from time to 
time along the rank, and feel constantly the 
elbow of the next man lightly, but never push 
him. 

398. The other men will feel lightly the elbow 
of the next man toward the pivot, resist pressure 
coming from the opposite side, and each will con- 
form himself to the marching flank — shortening 
his step according to his approximation to the 
pivot. 

399. The instructor will make the rank wheel 
round the circle once or twice before halting, in 
order to cause the principles to be the better un- 
derstood, and he will be watchful that the centre 
does not break. 

400. He will cause the wheel to the left to be 
executed according to the same principles. 

8* 



90 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE — PART III. 

401. When the instructor shall wish to arrest 
the wheel, he will command : 

1. Squad. 2. Halt. 

402. At the second command, the rank will 
halt, and no man stir. The instructor, going to 
the flank opposite the pivot, will place the two 
outer men of that flank in the direction he may 
wish to give to the rank, without however dis- 
placing the pivot, who will conform the line of 
his shoulders to this direction. The instructor 
will take care to have between these two men, 
and the pivot, only the space necessary to con- 
tain the other men. He will then command ; 

Left (or right) — Dbess. 

403. At this, the rank will place itself on the 
alignment of the two men established as the 
basis, in conformity with the principles pre- 
scribed. 

404. The instructor will next command: 
Front, which will be executed as prescribed 
]^o. 323. 

REMARKS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF THE WHEEL FROM 
A HALT. 

405. Turn a little the head toward the marching flank, 
and fix the eyes on the line of the eyes of the men who 
are on that side ; 

Because, otherwise, it would be impossible for 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PART IIL 91 

each man to regulate the length of his step so as 
to conform his own movement to that of the 
marching flank. 

Touch lightly the elbow of the next man toward the 
pivot; 

In order that the files may not open out in the 
wheel. 

Besist pressure that comes from the side of the marching 
flank ; 

Because, if this principle be neglected, the 
pivot, which ought to be a fixed point, in wheels 
from a halt, might be pushed out of its place by 
pressure. 

WHEELINO IN MARCHING, OR ON A MOVABLE 
PIVOT. 

406. When the recruits have been brought to 
execute well the wheel from a halt, they will be 
taught to wheel in marching. 

407. To this end, the rank being in march, 
when the instructor shall wish to cause it to 
change direction to the reverse flank (to the side 
opposite to the guide or pivot flank), he will 
command : 



1. Eight (or left) wheel, 2. March. 
408. The first command will be given when 



92 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET III. 

the rank is yet four paces from tlie wheeling 
point. 

409, At the second command, the wheel will 
be executed in the same manner as from a halt, 
except that the touch of the elbow will remain 
toward the marching flank (or side of the guide) 
instead of the side of the actual pivot ; that the 
pivot man, instead df merely turning in his 
place, will conform himself to the movement of 
the marching flank, feel lightly the elbow of the 
next man, take steps of full nine inches, and thus 
gain ground forward in describing a small curve 
so as to clear the point of the wheel. The mid- 
dle of the rank will bend slightly to the rear. 
As soon as the movement shall commence, the 
man who conducts the marching flank will cast 
his eyes on the ground over which he will have 
to pass. 

410. The wheel being ended, the instructor 
will command : 

1. Forward. 2. March. 

411, The first command will be pronounced 
when four paces are yet required to complete 
the change of direction. 

412. At the command march^ which will be 
given at the instant of completing the wheel, the ' 
man who conducts the marching flank will di- 
rect himself straight-forward; the pivot man 
and all the rank will retake the step of twenty- 
eight inches, and bring the head direct to the 
front. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PAET III. 93 

TUEI^ING, OE CHANGE OF DIEECTION TO THE SIDE 
OF THE GUIDE. 

413. The change of direction to the side of 
the guide, in marching, will be executed as fol- 
lows : The instructor will command : 

1. Left (or right) turn. 2. Maech. 

414. The first command will be given when 
the rank is yet four paces from the turning 
point. 

415. At the command march^ to be pronounc- 
ed at the instant the rank ought to turn, the 
guide will face to the left (or right) in marching, 
and move forward in the new direction without 
slackening or quickening the cadence, and with- 
out shortening or lengthening the step. The 
whole rank will promptly conform itself to the 
new direction: to effect which, each man will 
advance the shoulder opposite to the guide, take 
the double quick step, to carry himself in the 
new direction, turn the head and eyes to the 
side of the guide, and retake the touch of the 
elbow on that side, in placing himself on 
the alignment of the guide, from whom he will 
take the step, and then resume the direct position 
of the head. Each man will thus arrive success- 
ively on the alignment. 

WHEELING AND CHANGING DIEEOTION TO THE SIDE 
OF THE GUIDE, IN DOUBLE QUICK TIME. 

416. When the recruits comprehend and exe- 



94 SCHOOL OF THE 80LDIEE PAET HI. 

cute well, in quick time, the wheels at a halt and 
in marching, and the change of direction to the 
side of the guide, the instructor will cause the same 
movements to be repeated in double quick time. 

417. These various movements will be exe- 
cuted by the same commands and according to 
the same principles as in quick time, except that, 
the command double quick will precede that of 
march. In wheeling while marching, the pivot 
man will take steps of eleven inches, and in the 
changes of direction to the side of the guide, the 
men on the side opposite the guide must in- 
crease the gait in order to bring themselves into 
line. 

418. The instructor, in order not to fatigue 
the recruits, and not to divide their attention, 
will cause them to execute the several move- 
ments of which this lesson is composed, first 
without arms, and next, after the mechanism be 
well comprehended, with arms. 

Lesson Y. 
Long Marches in Double Quick Time and the Run. 

418. The instructor will cause to be resumed 
the exercises in double quick time and the run, 
with arms and knapsacks. 

420, He will cause long marches to be exe- 
cuted in double quick time, both by the front 
and by the flank, and by constant practice will 
lead the men to pass over a distance of five miles 
in sixty minutes. The pieces will be carried on 
either shoulder, and sometimes at a trail. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER — PAET III. 95 

421. He will also exercise them in long march- 
es at a run, the pieces carried at will ; the men 
will be instructed to keep as united as possible, 
without however exacting much regularity, 
which is impracticable. 

422. The run, in actual service, will only be 
resorted to when it may be highly important to 
reach a given point with great promptitude. 

TO STACK AEMS. 

The men being at order arms with bayonets 
unfixed, the instructor will command : 

StacTc — Arms. 

423. At this command, the front-rank man of 
every even-numbered file will pass his piece be- 
fore him, seizing it with the left hand near the 
upper band ; will place the butt a little in ad- 
vance of his left toe, the barrel turned toward 
the body, and draw the rammer slightly from 
its place ; the front-rank man of every odd num- 
bered file will also draw the rammer slightly, 
and pass his piece to the man next on his left, 
who will seize it with the right hand near the 
upper band, and place the butt a little in advance 
of the right toe of the man next on his right, 
the barrel turned to the front ; he will then cross 
the rammers of the two pieces, the rammer of 
the piece of the odd numbered man being inside; 
the rear rank man of every even file will also 
draw his rammer, lean his piece forward, the 
lock -plate downwards, advance the right foot 



96 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PAET III. 

about six inches, and insert the rammer between 
the rammer and barrel of the piece of his front- 
rank man ; with his left hand he will place the 
butt of his piece on the ground, thirty-two inches 
in rear of, and perpendicular to, the front rank, 
bringing back his right foot by the side of the 
left ; the front-rank man of every even file will 
at the same time lean the stack to the rear, quit 
it with his right hand, and force all the rammers 
down. The stack being thus formed, the rear- 
rank man of every odd file will pass his piece 
into his left hand, the barrel to the front, and in- 
clining it forward, will rest it on the stack. 

424, If the rifle musket be used and it is re- 
quired to stack arms with the bayonets fixed, the 
following will be the method. 

425, At the command staclc arms^ the front- 
rank man of every even-numbered file will pass 
his piece before him, seizing it with the left hand 
above the middle band, and place the butt be- 
hind and near the right foot of the man next on 
the left, the barrel turned to the front. At the 
same time the front-rank man of every odd-num- 
bered file will pass his piece before him, seizing 
it with the left hand below the middle band, and 
hand it to the man next on the left ; the latter 
will receive it with the right hand two inches 
above the middle band, throw the butt about 
thirty-two inches to the front, opposite to his 
right shoulder, inclining the muzzle toward him, 
and lock the shanks of the two bayonets : the 
lock of this second piece toward the right, and 
its shank above that of the first piece. The rear- 
ra^k man of every even file will project his bay- 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEPw PAET III. 97 

onet forward, and introduce it (using both hands) 
between and under the shanks of the two other 
bayonets. He will then abandon the piece to 
his file leader, who will receive it with the right 
hand under the middle band, bring the butt to 
the front, holding up his own piece and the stack 
with the left hand, and place the butt of this 
third piece between the feet of the man next on 
the right, the S plate to the rear. The stack 
thus formed, the rear-rank man of every odd 
file will pass his piece into his left hand, the bar- 
rel turned to the front, and, sloping the bayonet 
forward, rest it on the stack. 

426. The men of both ranks having taken the 
position of the soldier without arms, tlie instruc- 
tor will command : 

1. Break ranhs. 2. Maech. 

TO EESIJME AEMS. 

427. Both ranks being re-formed in rear of 
their stacks, the instructor will command : 

Talce — Aems. 

428. At this command, the rear-rank man of 
every odd-numbered file will withdraw his piece 
from the stack ; the front-rank man of every even 
file will seize his own piece with the left hand 
and that of the man on his right with his right 
hand, both above the lower band ; the rear-rank 
man of the even file will seize his piece with the 
right hand below the lower band (if the rifle 

9 



98 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE PART III. 

musket be used the piece will be seized at the 
middle band) ; these two men will raise up the 
stack to loosen the rammers, or shanks of the 
bayonets. The front-rank man of every odd file 
will facilitate the disengagement of the rammers, 
if necessary, by drawing them out slightly with 
the left hand, and will receive his piece from the 
hand of the man next on his left ; the four men 
will retake the position of the soldier at order 
arms. 



END OF THE SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIEE. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANT. 99 



TITLE III. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

General Rules and Division of the School of the 
Company. 

1. Instruction by company will always pre- 
cede that by battalion, and the object being to 
prepare the soldiers for the higher school, the 
exercises of detail by company will be strictly 
adhered to, as well in respect to principles, as 
the order of progression herein prescribed. 

2. There will be attached to a company under- 
going elementary instruction, a captain, a cover- 
ing sergeant, and a certain number of file closers, 
the whole posted in the manner indicated, Title 
First, and, according to the same Title, the officer 
charged with the exercise of Such company will 
herein be denominated the instructor. 

3. The School of the Company will be divided 
into six lessons, and each lesson will comprehend 
five articles as follows : 

Lesson I, 

1. To open ranks. 

2. Alignments in open ranks. 

3. Manual of arms. 

4. To close ranks. 



100 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

5. Alignments^ and manual of arms in closed 
ranks. 

Lesson II. 

1. To load in four times and at will. 

2. To fire by company. 

3. To fire by file. 

4. To fire by rank. 

5. To fire by the rear rank. 

Lesson III. 

1. To march in line of battle. 

2. To halt the company marching in line of 
battle, and to align it. 

3. Oblique march in line of battle. 

4. To mark time, to march in double quick 
time, and the back step. 

5. To march in retreat in line of battle. 

Lesson IY. 

1. To march by the flank. 

2. To change direction by file. 

3. To halt the company marching by the flank, 
and to face it to the front. 

4. The company being in march by the flank, 
to form it on the right or left by file into line of 
battle. 

5. The company marching by the flank, to form 
it by company or platoon into line, and cause it 
to face to the right and left, and file to the left 
and right in marching. 



school of the oompant. 101 

Lesson Y. 

1 . To break into column by platoon either at a 
halt, or while marching. 

2. To march in column. 
8. To change direction. 

4. To halt the column. 

5. Being in column by platoon, to form to the 
right or left into line of battle, either at a halt 
or marching. 

Lesson YI. 

1. To break into platoons, and to re-form the 
company. 

2. To break files to the rear, and to cause them 
to re-enter into line. 

3. To march in column in route^ and to execute 
the movements incident thereto. 

4. Countermarch. 

5. Being in column by platoon, to form on the 
right or left into line of battle. 

4. The company will always be formed in two 
ranks. The men will take their places in ranks 
as prescribed in No. 15 Title L, and without any 
preliminary formation. The instructor will then 
cause the files to be numbered, and for this pur- 
pose will command : 

In each rauTc — Count Twos. 

5. At this command, the men count in each 
rank, from right to left, pronouncing in a loud 

9* 



102 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON I, 

and distinct voice, in the same tone, without 
hurry and without turning the head, one^ two^ 
according to the place which each one occupies. 
He will also cause the company to be divided 
into platoons and sections, taking care that the 
first platoon is always composed of an even num- 
ber of files. 

6. The instructor will be as clear and concise 
as possible in his explanations ; he will cause 
faults of detail to be rectified by the captain, to 
whom he will indicate them, if the captain should 
not himself have observed them ; and the instruc- 
tor will not otherwise interfere, unless the cap- 
tain should not well comprehend, or should badly 
execute his intentions. 

7. Composure, or presence of mind, in him who 
commands, and in those who obey, being the first 
means of order in a body of troops, the instructor 
will labor to habituate the company to this essen- 
tial quality, and will himself give the example. 



LESSOIT FIRST. 

Article I. 

To open Kanks. 

8. The company being at ordered arms, the 
ranks and file closers well aligned, when the in- 
structor shall wish to cause the ranks to be 
opened, he will direct the left guide to place 
himself on the left of the front rank, which 
being executed, he will command : 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSOIT I. 10^ 

1. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Shoulder — Aems. 
4. To the rear open order. 

9. At the fourth command, the covering ser- 
geant and the left guide will step off smartly to 
the rear, four paces from the front rank, m order 
to mark the alignment of the rear rank. They 
will judge this distance by the eye, without count- 
ing the steps. 

10. The instructor will place himself at the 
same time on the right flank, in order to observe 
if these two non-commissioned officers are on a 
line parallel to the front rank, and, if necessary, 
to correct their positions, which being executed, 
he will command : 

5. Maech. 

11. At this command, the front rank will stand 
fast. 

12. The rear rank will step to the rear, with- 
out counting the steps, and will place themselves 
on the alignment marked for this rank, con- 
forming to what is prescribed in the aS'. S.^ Ko. 
330. 

13. The covering sergeant will align the rear 
rank on the left guide placed to mark the left of 
this rank. 

14. The file closers will march to the rear at 
the same time with the rear rank, and will place 
themselves two paces from this rank when it is 
aligned. 

15. The instructor seeing the rear rank aligned, 
will command : 



104 school of the company — lesson i. 
6. Feont. 

16. At this command, the sergeant on the left 
of the rear rank will return to his place as a file 
closer. 

17. The rear rank being aligned, the instructor 
will direct the captain and the covering sergeant 
to observe the men in their respective ranks, and 
to correct, if necessary, the positions of persons 
and pieces. 

Aeticle II. 
Alignments in Open Banks. 

18. The ranks being open, the instructor will, 
in the first exercises, align the ranks, man by 
man, the better to inculcate the principles. 

19. To effect this, he will cause two or four 
men on the right or left of each rank to march 
two or three paces forward, and, after having 
aligned them, command : 

By file^ right (or left) — Deess. 

20. At this, the men of each rank will move 
up successively on the alignment, each man be- 
ing preceded by his neighbor in the same rank, 
toward the basis, by two paces, and, having cor- 
rectly aligned himself, will cast his eyes to the 
front. 

21. Successive alignments having habituated 
the soldiers to dress correctly, the instructor will 
cause the ranks to align themselves at once, 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON I. 105 

forward and backward, sometiraes in a direction 
parallel, and sometimes in one oblique, to the 
original direction, giving, in each case, two or 
four men to serve as a basis of alignment to each 
rank. To effect which, he will command : 



1. Eight (or left) — Deess. 2. Feont. 

OE 

I. Eight (or left) 'bachward — Deess. 2. Feont. 



22. In oblique alignments, in opened ranks, the 
men of the rear rank will not seek to cover their 
file leaders, as the sole object of the exercise is to 
teach them to align themselves correctly in their 
respective ranks, in the different directions. 

23. In the several alignments, the captain will 
superintend the front rank, and the covering 
sergeant the rear rank. For this purpose, they 
will place themselves on the side by which the 
ranks are dressed. 

24. In oblique alignments, the men will con- 
form the line of their shoulders to the new direc- 
tion of their rank, and will place themselves on 
the alignment as has been prescribed in the 
8, 8., No. 326 or N'o. 330, according as the 
new direction shall be in front or rear of the 
original one. 

25. At the end of each alignment, the captain 
and the covering sergeant will pass along the 
front of the ranks to correct the positions of 
persons and arms. 



106 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON I. 

Article III. 
Manual of Arms. 

26. The ranks being open, the instructor will 
place himself in a position to see the ranks, and 
will command the manual of arms in the follow- 
ing order : 

Present arms. Shoulder arms. 
Order arms. 
Ground arms. 

Raise arms. Shoulder arms. 

Support arms. Shoulder arms. 

Fix hayonet. Shoulder arms. 

Charge hayonet. Shoulder arms. 

Trail arms. Shoulder arins. 

Unfix hayonet. Shoulder arms. 

Secure arms. Shoulder arms. 
Load in nine tiines. 

27. The instructor will take care that the po- 
sition of the body, of the feet, and of the piece, 
be always exact, and that the times be briskly 
executed and close to the person. 

Artice IY. 
To Close Ranks. 

28. The manual of arms being ended, the in- 
structor will command : 

order. 2. March. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON I. 107 

29. At the command march^ the rear rank 
will close up in quick time, each man directing 
himself on his file leader. 

Aeticle Y. 
Alignments, and Manual of Arms in Closed Ranks. 

30. The ranks being closed, the instructor 
will cause to be executed parallel and oblique 
alignments by the right and left, forward and 
backward, observing to place always two or four 
files to serve as a basis of alignment. He will 
give the commands prescribed, I^o. 21. 

31. In alignments in closed ranks, the captain 
will superintend the front rank, and the covering 
sergeant the rear rank. They will habituate them- 
selves to judge the alignment by the lines of the 
eyes and shoulders, in casting a glance of the eye 
along the front and rear of the ranks. 

32. The moment the captain perceives the 
greater number of the front rank aligned, he will 
command Feont, and rectify afterward, if ne- 
cessary, the alignment of the other men by 
the means prescribed in the S. S.^ N'o. 329. 
The rear rank will conform to the alignment of 
the front rank, superintended by the covering 
sergeant. 

33. The ranks being steady, the instructor 
will place himself on the flank to verify their 
alignment. He will also see that each lear-rank 
man covers accurately his file leader. 

34. In oblique alignments, the instructor will 
observe what is prescribed No. 24. 



108 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON H. 

35. In all alignments, the file closers will pre- 
serve the distance of two paces from the rear 
rank. 

36. The alignments being ended, the instruc- 
tor will cause to be executed the manual of arms. 

3T. The instructor, wishing to rest the men, 
without deranging the alignment, will first cause 
arms to be supported, or ordered, and then com- 
mand: 

In place — Rest. 

38. At this command, the men will no longer 
be constrained to preserve silence or steadiness 
of position ; but they will always keep one or 
other heel on the alignment. 

39. If, on the contrary, the instructor should 
wish to rest the men without constraining them 
to preserve the alignment, he will command : 

Rest. 

40. At which command, the men will not be 
required to preserve immobility, or to remain in 
their places. 

41. The instructor may, also, when he shaU 
judge proper, cause arms to be stacked, which 
will be executed as prescribed in the S, S, 



LESSON^ SECOND. 

42. The instructor wishing to pass the second 
lesson will cause the company to take arms, if 
stacks have been formed, and command : 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON 11. 109 

1. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Shoulder — Arms. 

43. The instructor will then cause loadings and 
firings, to be executed in the following order : 

Article I. 
To Load in Four Times and at 'Will. 

44. Loading in four times will be commanded 
and executed as prescribed in the S. S.^ No. 260, 
and following. The instructor will cause this 
exercise to be often repeated, in succession, be- 
fore passing to loading at will. 

45. Loading at will will be commanded and 
executed as prescribed in the S. S.^ Iso. 265. 
In priming when loading in four times^ and 
also at will, the captain and covering sergeant 
will half face to the right with the men, and 
face to the front when the man next to them, 
respectively, brings his piece to the should- 
der. 

43. The instructor will labor to the utmost to 
cause the men, in the different loadings, to exe- 
cute what has been prescribed in the S. S.^ Nos. 
266 and 267. 

47. Loading at will, being that of battle, and 
consequently the one with which it is most im- 
portant to render the men familiar, it will claim 
preference in the exercises the moment the men 
are well established in the principles. To these 
they will be brought by degrees, so that every 
man may be able to load with cartridges, and to 
10 



110 SCHOOL OF THE COMPAmT — LESSON IL 

fire at least three rounds in a minute with ease 
and regularity. 

Article II. 
To Fire by Company. 

48. The instructor, wishing to cause the fire hy 
company to be executed, will command : 

1. Fire "by company. 2. Commence firing. 

49. At the first command, the captain will 
promptly place himself opposite the centre of 
his company, and four paces in rear of the line 
of file closers : the covering sergeant will retire 
to that line, and place himself opposite to his in- 
terval. This rule is general, for loth the captain 
and covering sergeant^ in all the different firings, 

50. At the second command, the captain will 
add: 1. Company; 2. Ready; 3. Aim ; 4. Fire; 
5. Load. * 

61. At the command load, the men will load 
their pieces, and then take the position of ready ^ 
as prescribed in the School of the Soldier. 

52. The captain will immediately recommence 
the firing, by the commands : 

1. Company. 2. Aim. 3. Fire. 4. Load. 

63. The firing will be thus continued until the 
signal to cease firing is sounded. 

54. The captain will sometimes cause aim to 
be taken to the right and left, simply observing 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSOX II. Ill 

to pronounce right (or left) oblique^ before the 
command aim. 

Article III. 

The Fire by File. 

55. The instructor wishing to cause the fire by 
file to be executed, will command : 

1. Fire lij file. 2. Company. 3. Eeady. 4. Comr- 
mence firing. 

^^, The third and fourth commands will be 
executed as prescribed in the S. S.^ ]sro. 284 and 
following. 

57. The fire will be commenced by the right 
file of the company ; the next file will take aim 
at the instant the first brings down pieces to re- 
load, and so on to the left ; but this progression 
will only be observed in the first discharge, after 
which each man will reload and fire without 
regulating himself by others, conforming him- 
self to what is prescribed in the S. S.^ ISTo. 289. 



Article IY. 

The Fire by Rank. 

58. The instructor wishing the fire by rank to 
be executed, will command : 

1. Fire hy ranh. 2. Company. 3. Ready. 
4. Rear rank — Aim. 5. Fire. 6. Load. 



112 SCHOOL OP THE COMPANY LESSON II. 

59. The fifth and sixth commands will be exe- 
cuted as is prescribed in the S. S,^ Ko. 294 and 
following. 

60. When the instructor sees one or two pieces 
in the rear rank at a ready, he will command : 

1, Front ranlc. 2. Aim. 3. Fiee. 4. Load. 

61. The firing will be continued thus by alter- 
nate ranks, until the signal is given to cease 
firing. 

Q2>. The instructor will sometimes cause aim 
to be taken to the right and left, conforming to 
what is prescribed No. 54. 

63. The instructor will cause the firing to 
cease, whether by company, by file, or by rank, 
by sounding the signal to cease firing^ and at the 
instant this sound commences, the men will cease 
to fire, conforming to what is prescribed in the 
S. S., No. 291. 

64. The signal to cease firing will be always 
followed by a bugle note or tap ; at which sound, 
the captain and covering sergeant will promptly 
resume their places in line, and will rectify, if 
necessary, the alignment of the ranks. 

65. In this school, except when powder is 
used, the signal to cease firing will be indicated 
by the command, cease firing^ which will be pro- 
nounced by the instructor when he wishes the 
semblance of firing to cease. 

68. The command posts will be likewise sub- 
stituted, under similar circumstances, for the 
bugle note or tap employed as the signal for the re- 
tm-n of the captain and covering sergeant to theii 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSOR II. 113 

places in line, which command will be given 
when the instructor sees the men have brought 
their pieces to a shoulder. 

67. The fire by file being that which is most 
frequently used against an enemy, it is highly 
important that it be rendered perfectly familiar 
to the troops. The instructor Avill, therefore, 
give it almost exclusive preference, and labor to 
cause the men to aim with care, and always, if 
possible, at some particular object. As it is of 
the utmost importance that the men should aim 
with precision in battle, this principle will be 
rigidly enforced in the exercises for purposes of 
instruction. 

Aeticle y. 

To Fire by the Rear Bank. 

68. The instructor will cause the several fires 
to be executed to the rear, that is, by the rear 
rank. To effect this, he will command : 

1. Face 'by the rear rank, 2. Company. 3. 
Ahout — Face. 

69. At the first command, the captain will step 
out, and place himself sixteen inches from, and 
facing the right file of his company; the cover- 
ing sergeant, and file closers, will pass quickly 
through the captain's interval, and place tlieUi- 
selves faced to the rear, the covering sergeant a 
pace behind the captain, and the file closers two 
paces from the front rank opposite to their places 
inline, each passing behind the covering sergeant. 

10* 



114 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSO:^- H. 

70. At the third command, which will he 
given at the instant the last file closer shall have 
passed through the interval, the company will 
face about ; the captain will place himself in his 
interval in the rear-rank, now become the front, 
and the covering sergeant will cover him in the 
front rank, now become the rear. 

71. The company having faced by the rear- 
rank, the instructor will cause it to execute the 
fire by company, both direct and oblique, the fire 
by file, and the fire by rank, by the commands 
and means prescribed in the three preceding ar- 
ticles; the captain, covering sergeant, and the 
men, will conform themselves, in like manner, to 
what is therein prescribed. 

72. The fire by file will commence on the left 
of the company, now become the right. In the 
fire by rank, the firing will commence with the 
front rank, now become the rear. 

73. To resume the proper front, the instructor 
will command : 



1. Face ly the front rank, 2. Company. 3. 
About — Face. 

7.i. At the first command, tho captain, cover- 
ing sergeant and, file-closers will conform to 
what is prescribed ]S"os. 69 and 70. 

75. At the third command, the company hav- 
ing faced about, the captain and covering ser- 
geant will resume their places in line. 

76. In this lesson, the instructor will impress 
on the men the importance of aiming always at 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESS02T II. 115 

some particular object, and of holding the pieces 
as prescribed in the S. S., Ino. 185. 

77. The instructor will recommend to the cap- 
tain to make a short pause between the com- 
mands aim and Jire^ to give the men time to aim 
with accuracy. 

78. The instructor will place himself in positica 
to see the two ranks, in order to detect faults; 
he will charge the captain and file closers to be 
equally watchful, and to report to him when the 
ranks are at rest. He will remand, for individual 
instruction, the men who may be observed to 
load badly. 

79. The instructor will recommend to the sol- 
diers, in the firings, the highest degree of compo- 
sure or presence of mind ; he will neglect noth- 
ing that may contribute to this end. 

8'). He will give to the men, as a general 2^rin- 
ciple^ to maintain, in the direct fire, the left heel 
in its place, in order that the alignment of the 
ranks and files may not be deranged ; and he will 
verify, by examination, after each exercise in 
firing, the observance of this principle. 

81. The instructor will observe, in addition to 
these remarks, all those which follow. 

82. When the firing is executed vrith cartridges, 
it is particularly recommended that the men ob- 
serve, in uncocking, whether smoke escapes from 
the tube, which is a certain indication that the 
piece has been discharged; but if, on the con- 
trary, no smoke escapes, the soldier, in such case, 
instead of reloading, will pick and prime again. 
If, believing the load to be discharged, the soldier 
should put a second cartridge in his piece, he 



ll6 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON III. 

ought, at least, to perceive it in ramming, by the 
height of the load ; and he would be very culpa- 
ble should he put in a third. The instructor will 
always cause arms to be inspected after tiring 
with cartridges, in order to observe if the fault 
has been committed, of putting three cartridges 
without a discharge, in the same piece, in which 
c ise the ball screw will be applied. 

83. It soQietimes happens, when a cap has 
missed fire, that the tube is found stopped up 
with a hard, white, and compact powder ; in this 
case, picking will be dispensed with, and a new 
cap substituted for the old one. 



LESSO]^ THIRD. 

Aeticle I. 

To Advance in Line of Battle. 

84. The company being in line of battle, and 
correctly aligned, when the instructor shall wish 
to exercise it in marching by the front, he will 
assure himself that the shoulders of the captain 
and covering sergeant are perfectly in the direc- 
tion of their respective ranks, and that the ser- 
geant accurately covers the captain ; the instruc- 
tor will then place himself twenty-five or thirty 
paces in front of them, face to the rear, and place 
himself exactly on the prolongation of the line 
passing between their heels. 

8x The instructor, being aligned on the di- 
recting file, will command : 



SCHOOL or THE COMPANY LESSON III. 117 

1. Company ^ forward. 

86. At this, a sergeant, previously designated, 
will move six paces in advance of the captain : 
the instructor, from the position prescribed, will 
correctly align this sergeant on the prolongation 
of the directing file. 

87. This advanced sergeant, who is to be 
charged with the direction, will, the moment his 
position is assured, take two points on the ground 
in the straight line, which would pass between 
his own and the heels of the instructor. 

88. These dispositions being made, the in- 
structor will step aside, and command : 

2. Maech. 

89. At this, the company will step off with 
life. The directing sergeant w411 observe, with 
the greatest precision, the length and cadence of 
the step, marching on the two points he has 
chosen ; he will take, in succession, and always a 
little before arriving at the point nearest to him, 
new points in advance, exactly in the same line 
with the first two, and at the distance of some 
fifteen or twenty paces from each other. The 
captain will march steadily in the trace of the 
directing sergeant, keeping always six paces from 
him ; the men will each maintain the head direct 
to the front, feel lightly the elbow of his neigh- 
bor on the side of direction, and conform him- 
self to the principles prescribed in the 8. S., for 
the march by the front. 

90. The man next to the captain will take 



118 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON III. 

special care not to pass him ; to this etid, he will 
keep the line of his shoulders a little in the rear, 
hut in the same direction with those of the captain. 

91. The file closers will march at the habitual 
distance of two paces behind the rear rank. 

92. If the men lose the step, the instructor 
will command : 

To ^A^— Step. 

93. At this command the men will glance to- 
ward the directing sergeant, retake the step from 
him, and again direct their eyes to the front. 

94. The instructor will cause the captain and 
covering sergeant to be posted sometimes on the 
right, and sometimes on the left of the company. 

95. The directing sergeant, in advance, having 
the greatest influence on the march of the com- 
pany, he will be selected for the precision of his 
step, his habit of maintaining his shoulders in a 
square with a given line of direction, and of pro- 
longing that line without variation. 

93. If this sergeant should fail to observe 
these principles, undulations in the front of the 
company must necessarily follow ; the men will 
be unable to contract the habit of taking steps 
equal in length and SAviftness, and of maintaining 
their shoulders in a square with the line of direc- 
tion — the only means of attaining perfection in 
the march ia line. 

97. The instructor, with a view the better to 
establish the men in the length and cadence of 
the step, and in the principles of the march in 
line, will cause the company to advance three or 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON III. 119 

four hundred paces, at once, without halting, if 
the ground will permit. In the first exercises, 
he will march the company with open ranks, the 
better to observe the two ranks. 

98. The instructor will see, with care, that all 
the principles of the march in line are strictly 
observed ; he will generally be on the directing 
flank, in a position to observe the two ranks, and 
the faults they may commit; he will sometimes 
halt behind the directing file during some thirty 
successive steps, in order to judge whether the 
directing sergeant, or the directing file, deviate 
from the perpendicular. 

Aeticle II. 

To Halt the Company, Marching in Line of Battle, 
and to Align it. 

99. The instructor, wishing to halt the com- 
pany, will command : 

1. Company, 2. Halt. 

100. At the second command, the company 
will halt; the directing sergeant will remain in 
advance, unless ordered to return to the line of 
file closers. The company being at a halt, the 
instructor may advance the first three or four 
files on the side of direction, and align the com- 
pany on that basis, or he may confine himself to 
causing the alignment to be rectified. In this 
last case, he will command : Captain, rectify the 
alignment. The captain will direct the covering 



120 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON III. 

sergeant to attend to the rear rank, when each, 
glancing his eyes along his rank, will promptly 
rectify it, conforming to what is prescribed in 
the S. S., 1^0, 329. 

Aeticle III. 
Oblique March, in Line of Battle. 

101. The company being in the direct march, 
when the instructor shall wish to cause it to 
march obliquely, he will command : 

1. Bight (or left) oblique. 2. Maech. 

102. At the command march^ the company 
will take the oblique step. The men will accu- 
rately observe the principles prescribed in the 
S. *S., ISTo. 340. The rear rank men will pre- 
serve their distances, and march in rear of the 
man next on the right (or left) of their habitual 
file leaders. 

103. When the instructor wishes the direct 
march to be resumed, he will command : 

1. Forward, 2. Maech. 

104. At the command march^ the company 
will resume the direct march. The instructor 
will move briskly twenty paces in front of the 
captain, and facing the company, will place him- 
self exactly in the prolongation of the captain 
and covering sergeant ; and then, by a sign, will 
move the directing sergeant on the same line, if 



SCHOOL OF THE C0MPA:N'Y LESSOX III. 121 

he be not already on it ; the Latter will imme- 
diately take two points on the groimd between 
himself and the instructor, and as he advances, 
will take new points of direction, as is explained 
N'o. 89. 

195. In the obliqne march, the men not hav- 
ing the touch of elbows, the guide will always 
be on the side toward which the oblique is made, 
Avithout any indication to that effect being given ; 
and when the direct march is resumed, the guide 
will be, equally without indication, on the side 
where it was previous to the obli(]ue. 

103. The instructor will, at first, canse the ob- 
lique to be made toward the side of the guide. 
He will also direct the captain to have an eve on 
the directing sergeant, in order to keep on the 
same perpendicular line to the front with him, 
while following a parallel direction. 

107, During the continuance of the march, 
the instructor will be watchful that the men fol- 
low parallel directions, in conforming to the prin- 
ciples prescribed in the school of the soldier, for 
preserving the general alignment ; whenever the 
men lose the alignment, he will be careful that 
thev regain it by lengthening or shortening the 
step, without altering the cadence, or changing 
the direction. 

108. The instructor will place himself in front 
of the company and face to it, in order to regu- 
late the march of the directing sergeant, or the 
man who is on the flank toward which the ob- 
lique is made, and to see that the principles of 
the march are properly observed, and that the 
files do not crowd. 

11 



122 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON in. 



Aeticle IY. 

To Mark Time, to March in Double Quick Time, 
and the Back {Step. 

109. The company being in the direct march 
and in quick time, the instructor, to cause it to 
mark time, will command : 

1. Marie time. 2. Maech. 

110. To resume the march, he will command : 

1. Forward. 2. Maech. 

111. To cause the march in double quick time, 
the instructor will command : 

1. Doiible quick, 2. March. 

112. The command march will be pronounced 
at the instant either foot is coming to the ground, 

113. To resume quick time, the instructor 
will command: 

1. Quich time. 2. Maech. 

114. The command onarch will be pronounced 
at the instant either foot is coming to the ground. 

115. The company being at a halt, the in- 
structor may cause it to march in the back step ; 
to this effect, he will command : 

1. Company 'backward. 2. Maech. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON III. 123 

116. The back step will be executed accord- 
ing to the principles prescribed in the S. S., No. 
256, but the nse of it being rare, the instructor 
will not cause more than fifteen or twenty steps 
to be taken in succession, and to that extent but 
seldom. 

117. The instructor ought not to exercise the 
company in marching in double quick time, till 
the men are well established in the length and 
swiftness of the pace in quick-time ; he Avill then 
endeavor to render the march of one hundred 
and sixty-five steps in the minute equally easy 
and familiar, and also cause them to observe the 
same erectness of body and composure of mind, 
as if marching in quick time. 

118. When marching in double quick time, if 
a subdivision (in a column) has to change direc- 
tion by turning^ or has to form into line, the men 
will quicken the pace to one hundred and eighty 
steps in a minute. The same swiftness of step 
will be observed under all circumstances where 
great rapidity of movement is required. But, as 
ranks of men cannot march any length of time 
at so svv'ift a rate, without breaking or confusion, 
this acceleration will not be considered a pre- 
scribed exercise, and accordingly companies or 
battalions will only be habitually exercised in 
the double quick time of one hundred and sixty- 
five steps in the minute. 



124: SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESS02^ III. 

Aeticle Y. 
To march in retreat. 

119. The company being halted and correctly 
aligned, when the instructor shall wish to cause* 
it to march in retreat, he will command : 

1. Company. 2. About — Face. 

120. The company having faced to the rear, 
the instructor will place himself in front of -the 
directing file, conforming to what is prescribed 
IsTo. 84. 

121. The instructor, being correctly estab- 
lished on the prolongation of the directing file, 
will command : 

3. Company^ forward, 

122. At this, the directing sergeant will con- 
form himself to what is prescribed Xos. 86 and 
87, with this diflference — he will place hknself 
six paces m front of the line of file closers, now 
leading. 

123. The covering sergeant will step into the 
line of file closers, opposite to his interval, and 
the captain will place himself in the rear rank, 
now become the front. 

124. This disposition being promptly made^ 
the instructor will command : 

4. Maech. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON III. 125 

125. At this, the directing sergeant, the cap- 
tain, and the men, will conform themselves to 
what is prescribed J^o. 89, and following. 

126. The instructor will cause to be executed, 
marching in retreat, all that is prescribed for 
marching in advance ; the commands and the 
means of execution will be the same. AVhen march- 
ing in open order, the captain will remain in the 
front, and the covering sergeant in the rear rank. 

127. The instructor having halted the com- 
pany, will, when he may wish, cause it to face to 
the front, bj the commands prescribed No. 119. 
The captain, the covering sergeant, and the direct- 
ing sergeant, will resume their habitual places in 
line, the moment thev sliall have faced about. 

128. The company being in march by the front 
rank, if the instructor should wish it to march in 
retreat, he will cause the right about to be ex- 
ecuted while marching, and to this effect will 
comnieand : 

1. Company. 2. RigTit about, 8. March. 

129. At the third command, the company will 
promptly face about, and recommence the march 
by the rear rank. 

130. The directing sergeant will face about 
with the company, and will move rapidly six 
paces in front of the file closers, and upon the 
prolongation of the guide. The instructor will 
place him in the proper direction by the means 
prescribed ISTo. 104. The captain, the covering 
sergeant, and the men, wiU conform to the prin- 
ciples prescribed for the march in retreat. 

131. When the instructor wishes the company 
11* 



126 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON in. 

to march by the front rank, he will give the same 
commands, and will regulate the direction of the 
march by the same means. 

13-3, The company being in march either by 
the front or rear rank, and if the instructor should 
wish to face it about without continuing the 
march, he will command : 

1. Company, 2. Right about, 3. Halt. 

133. At the command halt^ the company will 
face about, and the men will conform to what is 
prescribed in the S, 8,, N'o. 355. 

134. The instructor will cause to be executed 
in double quick time, all the movements pre- 
scribed in the 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th lessons of this 
school, with the exception of the march back- 
wards, which will be executed only in quick time. 
He will give the same commands, observing to 
add double quiclc before the command marc/i. 

133. When the pieces are carried on the right 
shoulder, in quick time, the distance between the 
ranks will be sixteen inches. Whenever, there- 
fore, the instructor brings the company from a 
shoulder to this position, the rear rank must 
shorten a little the first steps in order to gain the 
prescribed distance, and will lengthen the steps, 
on the contrary, in order to close up when the 
pieces are again brought to a shoulder. In march- 
ing in double quick time, the distance between 
the ranks will be twenty-six inches, and the 
pieces will be carried habitually on the right 
shoulder. 

138. Whenever a company is halted, the meu 



SLHUUL Ut iMHi UU^irA-Nl. 



Byjlle left Ma7^ch.—N'o. 145. 

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SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON" IT. 127 

will bring their pieces at once to a shoulder at the 
command halt. The rear rank will close to its 
proper distr.nce. These rules are general. 



, LESSOlSr FOUKTH. 
Article I. 
To march by the flank. 

137. The company being in line of battle, and 
at a halt, when the instructor shall wish to cause 
it to march bj the right flank, he v/ill com- 
mand : 

1. Company^ right — Face. 2. Forte ard. 
3. Maech. 

138. At the first command, the company will 
face to the right, the covering sergeant will place 
himself at the head of the front rank, the cap- 
tain having stepped out for the purpose, so far 
as to find himself by the side of the sergeant, 
and on his left ; the front rank will double, as 
is prescribed in the S. S.^ ]^o. 363 ; the rear 
rank will at the same time, side-step to the 
right one pace, and double in the same man- 
ner ; so that when the movement is completed, 
the files will be formed of four men aligned, and 
elbow to elbow. The intervals will be pre- 
served. 

1.39. The file tlosers will also move by side 
step to the right, so that when the ranks are 



128 SCHOOL OF THE COZS^PAXT LESSOX IT. 

formed, they will be two paces from the rear- 
most rank. 

140. At the command march, the company 
will move oiF briskly in cfaick time ; the cover- 
ing sergeant at the head of the front rank, and 
the captain on his left, will march straight-for- 
ward. The men of each file will march abreast 
of their respective front rank men, heads direct 
to the front ; the file closers will march opposite 
their places in line of battle. 

141. The instructor vrill cause the principles 
of the march by the fi.ank to be observed, in 
placing himself, pending the march, as prescribed 
m the S, S., iSTo. 368. 

142. The instructor will cause the march by 
the left flank to be executed by the same com- 
mands, substituting left for riglit ; the ranks will 
double, as has been prescribed in the S. S., IN'o. 
365 ; the rear-rank will side-step to the left one 
pace before doubhng. 

143. At the instant the company faces to the 
left, the left guide will place himself at the head 
of the front rank ; the captain will pass rapidly 
to the left, and place himself by the right side 
of this guide ; the covering sergeant will replace 
the captain in the front-rank, the moment the 
latter quits it to go to the left. 

Article XL 
To change diraction by file. 

144. The company being faced by the flank, 
and either in march, or at a halt, when the in- 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSOliT IV. 129 

structor shall wish to cause it to wheel by file, 
he will command : 

1. By file^ left (or righf). 2. Maeoh. 

115. At the command marcJi^ the first file 
will wheel ; if to the side of the front-rank man, 
the latter will take care not to turn at once, but 
to describe a short arc of a circle, shortening a 
little the first five or six steps in order to give 
time to the fourth man of this file to conform 
himself to the movement. If the wheel be to 
the side of the rear rank, the front-rank man 
will wheel in the step of twenty-eight inches, 
and the fourth man will conform himself to the 
movement by describing a short arc of a circle, 
as has been explained. Each file will come to 
wheel on the same ground where that which pre- 
ceded it wheeled. 

146. The instructor will see that the wheel be 
executed according to these principles, in order 
that the distance between the files may always 
be preserved, and that there be no check or hin- 
drance at the wheeling point. 

Article III. 

To halt the company marohing by the flank, and 
to face it to the front. 

147, To effect these objects, the insta^ctor 
will command : 

1. Company. 3. Halt, 3. Front. 



130 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — ^LESSON IV. 

148. The second and third commands will be 
executed as prescribed in the S. S.^ Kos. 370 
and 371. As soon as the files have undoubled, 
the rear rank will close to its proper distance. 
The captain and covering sergeant, as well as 
the left guide, if the march be by the left flank, 
will return to their habitual places in line, 
at the instant the company faces to the 
front. 

149. The instructor may then align the com- 
pany by one of the means prescribed No. 100. 

Aetiole ly. 

The company being in march by the flank, to 
form it on the right (or left) by file into line 
of battle. 

150. If the company be marching by the 
right flank, the instructor will command : 

1. On the right^ hy file into line. 2. March. 

151. At the command march^ the rear-rank 
men doubled, will mark time; the captain and 
the covering sergeant will turn to the right, 
march straight-forward, and be halted by the in- 
structor when they shall have passed at least six 
paces beyond the rank of file closers ; the 
captain will place himself correctly on the line 
of battle, and will direct the alignment as the 
men of the front rank successively arrive ; the 
covering sergeant will place himself behind the 
captain at the distance of the rear rank ; the two 

. m^n on the right of the front rank doubled, will 



YOL. 1. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 



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SCHOOL OF THE COMPAlTr — ^LESSON lY. 131 

continue to march, and passing beyond tlie cov- 
ering sergeant and the captain, will turn to the 
right ; after turning, they will continue to march 
elbow to elbow, and direct themselves toward 
the line of battle, but when they shall arrive at 
two paces from this line, the even number will 
shorten the step so that the odd number may pre- 
cede him on the line, the odd number placing 
himself by the side and on the left of the cap- 
tain ; the even number will afterward oblique to 
the left, and place himself on the left of the odd 
number; the next two men of the front rank 
doubled, will pass in the same manner behind 
the two first, turn then to the right, and place 
themselves, according to the means just explain- 
ed, to the left, and by the side of, the two men 
already established on the line; the remaining 
files of this rank will follow in succession, and 
be formed to the left in the same manner. The 
rear rank doubled will execute the movement in 
the manner already explained for the front rank, 
taking care not to commence the movement until 
four men of the front rank are established on the 
line of battle ; the rear-rank men, as they arrive 
on the line, will cover accurately their file 
leaders. 

152. If the company be marching by the left 
flank, the instructor will cause it to form by file 
on the left into line of battle, according to the 
same principles and by the same commands, sub- 
stituting the indication left for right. In this 
case, the odd numbers will shorten the step, so 
that the even numbers may precede them on the 
line. The captain, placed on the left of the 



.132 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON IT. 

front rank, and the left guide, will return to 
their places in line of battle, by order of the in- 
structor, after the company shall be formed and 
aligned. 

153. To enable the men the better to compre- 
hend the mechanism of this movement, the in- 
si:ructor will at first cause it to be executed separ- 
ately by each rank doubled, and afterward by 
the two ranks united and doubled. 

154, The instructor will place himself on the 
line of battle, and without the point where the 
right or left is to rest, in order to establish the 
base of the alignment, and afterward he will 
follow up the movement to assure himself that 
each file conforms itself to what is prescribed 
No. 151. 

Aetiole Y. 

Ths company being in march by the flank, to 
form it by company, or by platoon, into line, 
ani to cause ic to face to the right and left in 
marching. 

l->5. The company being in march by the right 
flank, the instructor will order the captain to 
form it into line ; the captain will immediately 
command: 1. By company ^ into line ; 2. March. 

153. At the command march^ the covering 
sergeant will continue to march straight-for- 
ward ; the men will advance the right shoulder, 
take the double quick step, and move into line, 
by the shortest route, taking care to undouble 
the files, and to come on the line one after the 
other. 



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SCHOOL OF THE OOMPANT — LESSON IT. 1S3 

157. As the front-rank men successivelj arrive 
in line with the covering sergeant, they will 
take from him the step, and then turn their eyes 
to the front. 

15S. The men of the rear rank will conform 
to the movements of their respective lile leaders, 
but without endeavoring to arrive in line at the 
same time with the latter. 

153. If the company, marching either by the 
right or left flank, be faced about previous to 
forming line, the men will come into line by 
twos, and according to the means as above indi- 
cated, taking care to undouble files, the two front- 
rank men taking their places in the line at the 
same time, to be covered by their rear-rank men 
taking an oblique step. 

160. At the instant the movement begins, the 
captain will face to his company in order to fol- 
low up the execution ; and, as soon as the com- 
pany is formed, he will command, guide left^ 
place himself two paces before the centre, face to 
the front, and take the step of the company. 

18i. At the command guide left^ the second 
sergeant will promptly place himself in the front- 
rank, on the Ijft, to serve as guide, and the cov- 
ering sergeant who is on the opposite flank will 
remain there. 

162. When the company marches by the lefb 
flank, this movement will be executed by the 
same commands, and according to the same prin- 
ciples ; the company being formed, the captain 
will command guide rights and place himself in 
front of his company as above ; the covering ser- 
geant who is on tho n'j:ht of the front rank will 
12 



134 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSOX lY. 

serve as guide, and the second sergeant placed on 
the left flank will remain there. 

163. Thus, in a column bj company, right or 
left in front, the covering sergeant and the sec- 
ond sergeant of each company will always be 
placed on the right and left, respectively, of the 
front rank ; they will be denominated riglit 
guide and left guide^ and the one or the other 
charged with the direction. 

164. The company being in march by the flank, 
if it be the wish of the instructor to cause it to 
form platoons, he will give an order to that eff'ect 
to the captain, who will command : 

1. By platoon^ into line, 2. Maech. 

165. The movement will be executed by each 
platoon according to the above principles. The 
captain w^ill place himself before the centre of 
the first platoon, and the first lieutenant before 
the centre of the second, passing through the 
opening made in the centre of the company, if 
the march be by the right flank, and around the 
left of his platoon, if the march be by the left : 
in this last case, the captain will also pass around 
the left of the second platoon, in order to place 
himself in front of the first. Both the captain 
and lieutenant, without waiting for each other, 
will command guide left (or right) at the instant 
their respective platoons are formed. 

186. At the command guide left (or riglit)^ 
the guide of each platoon will pass rapidly to the 
indicated flank of the platoon, if not already 
there. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSOlf lY. 135 

167. The right guide of the company will al- 
ways serve as the guide of the right or left of the 
first platoon, and the left guide of the company 
will serve, in like manner, as the guide of the 
second platoon. 

183. Thus in a column, by platoon, there will 
be but one guide to each platoon ; he will always 
be placed on its left flank, if the right be in front, 
and on the right flank, if the left be in front. 

139. In these movements, the file closers will 
follow the platoons to which they are attached. 

ITO. The instructor may cause the company, 
marching by the flank, to form by company, or 
by platoon, into line, by his own direct com- 
mands, using those prescribed for the captain, 
No. 155 or 164. 

171. The instructor will exercise the company 
in passing, without a halt, from the march by the 
front, to the march by the flank, and reciprocally. 
In either case, he will employ the commands 
prescribed in the S. S.^ No. 374, substituting 
company for squad. The company will face to 
the right or left, in marching, and the captain, 
the guides, and file-closers, will conform them- 
selves to what is prescribed for each in the march 
by the flank, or in the march by the front of a 
company supposed to be a subdivision of a columm 

172. If, after facing to the right or left, in 
marching, the company find itself faced by the 
rear rank, the captain will place himself two paces 
behind the centre of the front rank, now in the 
rear, the guides will pass to the rear rank, now 
leading, and the file closers wiU march in front 
of this rank. 



136 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON Y. 

173. The company being in march either by the 
front or flank, and if the instructor should wish to 
face it by a flank without continuing the march, 
it will be executed by the commands and means 
prescribed in the S. S., IN'os. 379-80, substituting 
company for squad. 

174. The company marching in column by pla- 
toon, can be faced to the right or left, by the 
commands, as above indicated. At the first com- 
mand, the chiefs of platoons and the guides, will 
go quickly to the indicated flank. At the com- 
mand march^ each subdivision will face, and be 
led off in the new direction by its chief If the 
right be in front, the subdivision can be filed to 
the left, immediately after being faced either to 
the right or left, by the command hy file left be- 
fore the command march. If the left be in front, 
the command will be Jy fi^^ right before the 
command march. 

175. The instructor, in order to avoid fatiguing 
the men and to prevent them from being negli- 
gent in the position of shoulder arms, will some- 
times order support arms in marching by the 
flank, and arms on the right shoulder, when 
marching in line. 

LESSOR FIFTH. 

Aeticle I. 

To break into column by platoon, either at a 
halt or on march. 

176. The company being at a halt, in line of 



YOL. 1. SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. Pl. 21. 



Company incolv/mn Ijy 'platoon — No. 181. 

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-By platoon rtght wheel.— No. 176. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON T. 137 

battle, the instructor, wishing to break it into 
column, by platoon to the right, will command : 

1. By platoon^ right wheel, 2. Maech. 

177. At the first command, the chiefs of platoon 
will rapidly place themselves two paces before 
the centres of their respective platoons, the lieu- 
tenant passing around the left of the company. 
They need not occupy themselves with dressing 
one upon the other. The covering sergeant will 
replace the captain in the front rank. 

178. At the command march^ the right front- 
rank man of each platoon will face to the right, 
the covering sergeant standing fast ; the chief of 
each platoon will move quickly by the shortest 
line, a little beyond the point at which the march- 
ing flank will rest when the wheel shall be com- 
pleted, face to the late rear, and place himself so 
that the line which he forms with the man on the 
right (who had faced), shall be perpendicular to 
that occupied by the company in line of battle ; 
each platoon will wheel according to the princi- 
ciples prescribed for the wheel on a fixed pivot, 
and when the man who conducts the marching 
flank shall approach near to the perpendicular, ' 
its chief will command : 

1. Platoon. 2. Halt. 

179. At the command halt^ which will be 
given at the instant the man who conducts the 
marching flank shall have arrived at three paces 
from the perpendicular, the platoon will halt ; the 

12* 



138 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANT LESSON Y. 

covering sergeant will move to the point where 
the left of the first platoon is to rest, passing by 
the front rank ; the second sergeant will place 
himself, in like manner, in respect to the second 
platoon. Each will take care to leave between 
himself and the man on the right of his platoon, 
a space equal to its front ; the captain and first 
lieutenant will look to this, and each take care to 
align the sergeant between himself and tne man 
of the platoon who had faced to the right. 

180. The guide of each platoon, being thus es- 
tablished on the perpendicular, each chief will 
place himself two paces outside of his guide, and, 
facing toward him, will command : 

3. Left — ^Deess. 

181. The alignment being ended, each chief of 
platoon will command, Feont, and place himself 
two paces before its centre. 

182. The file closers will conform themselves 
to the movement of their respective platoons, 
preserving always the distance of two paces 
from the rear rank. 

183. The company will break by platoon to 
the left, according to the same principles. The 
instructor will command : 

1. By 'platoon^ left wheel, 2. Maech.^ 

184. The first command will be executed in 
the same manner as if breaking by platoon to the 
right. 

185. At the command march^ the left front- 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON Y. 139 

rank man of each platoon will face to the left, 
and the platoons will wheel to the left, according 
to the principles prescribed for the wheel on a 
fixed pivot ; the chiefs of platoon will conform to 
the principles indicated N"os. 178 and 179. 

186. At the command halt^ given bv the chief 
of each platoon, the covering sergeant on the 
right of the front rank of the first platoon, and 
the second sergeant near the left of the second 
platoon, will each move to the points where the 
right of his platoon is to rest. The chief of each 
platoon should be careful to align the sergeant 
between himself and the man of the platoon who 
had faced to the left, and will then command : 

Right — Deess. 

187. The platoons being aligned, each chief of 
platoon will command, Feoxt, and place himself 
opposite its centre. 

188. The instructor wishing to break the com- 
pany by platoon to the right, and to move the 
column forward after the wheel is completed, 
will caution the company to that effect, and 
command : 

1. By platoon^ rigJit wheel. 2. Maech. 

189. At the first command, the chiefs of pla- 
toon will move rapidly in front of their respective 
platoons, conforming to what has been prescribed 
No. 177, and will remain in this position during 
the continaance of the wheel. The covering ser- 



140 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON T. 

geant will replace the chief of the first platoon 
in the front rank. 

190. At the command march^ the platoons will 
wheel to the right, conforming to the principles 
herein prescribed ; the man on the pivot will not 
face to the right, but will mark time, conforming 
himself to the movement of the marching flank ; 
and when the man who is on the left of this flank 
shall arrive near the perpendicular, the instructor 
will command : 

8. Forward. 4. Maech. 5. Guide left. 

191. At the fourth command, which will be 
given at the instant the wheel is completed, the 
platoons will move straight to the front, all the 
men taking the step of twenty-eight inches. The 
covering sergeant and the second sergeant will 
move rapidly to the left of their respective pla- 
toons, the former passing before the front rank. 
The leading guide will immediately take points 
on the ground in the direction which may be in- 
dicated to him by the instructor. 

192. At the fifth command, the men wUl take 
the touch of elbows lightly to the left. 

193. If the guide of the second platoon should 
lose his distance, or the line of direction, he will 
conform to the principles hereinafter prescribed, 
iTos. 207 and 208. 

194 If the company be marching in line to 
tlie front, the instructor will cause it to break by 
platoon to the right by the same commands. At 
the command march^ the platoons will wheel in 
the manner already explained ; the man on the 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON Y. 141 

piYot Yrill take care to mark time in his place, 
Trithout ad-Yancing or receding ; the instructor, 
the chiefs of platoon, and the guides, will con- 
form to what has been prescribed Kos. 189, and 
following. 

195. The company may be broken by platoons 
to the left, according to the same principles, and 
by iuYcrse means, the instructor giving the com- 
mands prescribed N'os. 188 and 190, substituting 
left for right, and reciprocally. 

196. The movements explained in ^os. 188 
and 194 will only be executed after the company 
has become well established in the principles 
of the march in column, Articles Second and 
Third. 



197. The instructor, placed in front of the com- 
pany, will observe whether the movement be ex- 
ecuted according to the principles prescribed 
above ; whether the platoons, after breaking into 
column, are perpendicular to the line of battle 
just occupied ; and whether the guide, who placed 
himself where the marching flank of his pla- 
toon had to rest, has left, between himself and 
the front-rank man on the right (or left), the 
space necessary to contain the front of the pla- 
toon. 

198. After the platoons have broken, if the 
rearmost guide should not accurately cover the 
leudiug one, he will not seek to correct his posi- 
tion, till the column be put in march, unless tlie 
instructor, wishing to wheel immediately into 
line, should think it necessary to rectify the di- 



142 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSOR Y. 

rection of the guides, which would be executed 
as will be hereinafter explained in Article Y. 
of this Lesson. 

199. The instructor will observe, that the man 
on the right (or left) of each platoon, who, at the 
command march^ faces to the right (or left) being 
the true pivot of the wheel, the front-rank man 
next to him ought to gain a little ground to the 
front in wheeling, so as to clear the pivot-man. 



Aeticle II. 
To march in column. 

200. The company having broken by platoon, 
right (or left) in front, the instructor, wishing to 
cause the column to march, wiU place himself 
twenty-five or thirty paces in front, face to the 
guides, establish himself correctly, on their direc- 
tion, and caution the leading guide to take points 
on the ground. 

201. The instructor being thus placed, the 
guide of the leading platoon will take two points 
on the ground in the straight line passing between 
his own and the heels of the instructor. 

202. These dispositions being made, the in- 
structor will step aside, and command : 

1. Column, forward. 2. Guide left (or right). 
3. Makoh. 

203. At the command march, promptly re- 
peated by the chiefs of platoon, they, as weU as 



YOL. 1. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. Pl. 22. 



Left into line ivheel. — No, 243, 



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' inge direction. — No. 21T. 



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To 7navch in Column. — iV^t?. 202. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON T. 143 

the guides, will lead off, by a decided step, their 
respective platoons, in order that the whole mar 
move smartlj, and at the same moment. 

204. The men will each feel lightly the elbow 
of his neighbor toward the guide, and conform 
himself, in marching, to the principles prescribed 
in the S. S.^ is'o. 336. The man next to the 
guide, in each platoon, will take care never to 
pass him, and also to march always about six 
inches to the right (or left) from him, in order 
not to push him out of the direction. 

205. The leading guide will observe, with the 
greatest precision, the length and cadence of the 
step, and maintain the direction of his march by 
the means prescribed ISTo. 89. 

206. The following guide will march exactly 
in the trace of the leading one, preserving be- 
tween the latter and himself a distance precisely 
equal to the front of his platoon, and marching 
in the same step with the leading guide. 

207. If the following guide lose his distance 
from the one leading (which can only happen by 
his own fault), he will correct himself by slightly 
len,:rthening or shortening a few steps, in order 
that there may not be sudden quickenings or 
slackenings in the march of his platoon. 

208. If the same guide, having neglected to 
march exactly in the trace of the preceding one, 
find himself sensibly out of the direction, he will 
remedy this fault by advancing more or less the 
shoulder opposite to the true direction, and thus, 
in a few steps, insensibly regain it, without the 
inconvenience of the oblique step, which would 
c-ause a loss of distance. In all cases, each chief 



141: SOnOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON V. 

of platoon will cau&e it to conform to the move- 
ments of its guide. 

EEMAEKS 0:S- THE MARCH 11^ COLUMN". 

209. If the chiefs and guides of subdivisions 
neglect to lead off, and to decide the march from 
the first step, the march will be begun in uncer- 
tainty, which will cause waverings, a loss of 
step, and a loss of distance. 

210. If the leading guide take unequal steps, 
the march of his subdivision, and that which 
follows, will be uncertain ; there will be un- 
dulations, quickenings, and slackenings in the 
march. 

211. If the same guide be not habituated to 
prolong a given direction, without deviation, he 
will describe a crooked line, and the column 
must wind to conform itself to such line. 

212. If the following guide be not habituated 
to march in the trace of the preceding one, he 
will lose his distance at everj moment in endea- 
vors to regain the trace, the preservation of which 
is the most important principle in the march in 
column. 

213. The guide of each subdivision in column 
will be responsible for the direction, distance, and 
step ; the chief of the subdivision, for the order 
and conformity of his subdivision with the move- 
ments of the guide. Accordingly, the chief will 
frequently turn, in the march, to observe hi« 
subdivision. 

214. The instructor, placed on the flank of the 
guides, will watch over the execution of all the 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON V. 145 

principles prescribed; he will, also, sometimes 
place himself in the rear, align himself on the 
guides, and halt, pending some thirty paces to- 
gether, to verify the accuracy of the guides. 

215. In column, chiefs of subdivision will al- 
ways repeat, with the greatest promptitude, the 
commands march and lialt^ no chief waiting for 
another, but each repeating the command the 
moment he catches it from the instructor. They 
will repeat no other command given by him; 
but will explain, if necessary, to their subdivis- 
ions, in an under tone of voice, what they will 
have to execute, as indicated by the commands 
of caution. ^ 



Article III. 
To change direction, 

216. The changes of direction of a column 
while marching, will be executed according to 
the principles prescribed for wheeling on the 
march. Whenever, therefore, a column is to 
change direction, the instructor will change the 
guide, if not already there, to the flank opposite 
the side to which the change is to be made. 

217. The column being in march right in front, 
if it be the wish of the instructor to change di- 
rection to the right, he will give the order to the 
chief of the first platoon, and immediately go 
himself, or send a marker to the point at which 
the change of direction is to be made ; the in- 
structor, or marker, will place himself on the di- 

13 



14:6 SCHOOL OF THE COMPAITT LESSON T. 

rection of the guides, so as to present the breast 
to that flank of the cohimn. 

218. The leading guide will direct his march 
on that person, so that, in passing, his left arm 
may just graze his breast. When the leading 
guide shall have approached near to the marker, 
the chief of his platoon will command : 

1. Eight wheel. 2. March. 

219. The first command will be given when the 
platoon is at the distance of four paces from the 
marker. 

220. At the command march, which will be 
pronounced at the instant the guide shall have 
arrived opposite the marker, the platoon will 
wheel to the right, conforming to what is pre- 
scribed in the 8. S., Ko. 409. 

221. The wheel being finished, the chief of 
each platoon will command : 



8. Forward. 4. Maech. 

222. These commands will be pronounced and 
executed as is prescribed in the S. aS'., I^os. 411 
and 412. The guide of the first platoon will 
take points on the ground in the new direction, 
in order the better to regulate the march. 

29S. The second platoon will continue to 
march straight-forward till up with the marker, 
when it will wheel to the right, and retake the 
direct march by the same commands and the 
same means which governed the first platoon. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON V. 147 

224. The column being in march right in front, 
if the instructor .should wish to change direction 
to the left, he will command, guide right. At 
this command, the two guides will move rapidly 
to the right of their respective platoons, each 
passing in front of his subdivision; the men will 
take the touch of elbows to the right ; the in- 
structor will afterwards conform to what is pre- 
scribed No. 217. 

225. The change of direction to the left will 
then be executed according to the same principles 
as the change of direction to the right, but by 
inverse means. 

226. When the change of direction is com- 
pleted, the instructor will command, guide left. 

227. The changes of direction in a column, 
left in front, will be executed according to the 
same principles. 

228. In changes of direction in double quick 
time, the platoon will wheel according to the 
principles prescribed in the S. S.^ No. 417. 

229. In order to prepare the men for those for- 
mations in line, which can be executed only by 
turning to the right or the left, the instructor 
will sometimes cause the column to change di- 
rection to the' side of the guide. In this case, 
the chief of the leading platoon will command: 
Left (or right) turn^ instead of left (or right) 
wheel. The subdivisions will each turn, in suc- 
cession ; conforming to what is prescribed in the 
S. aS'., No. 415. The leading guide, as soon as 
he has turned, will take points on the ground, 
the better to rei^ulate the direction of the march. 



148 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON V. 

230. It is highly important, in order to pre- 
serve distances and the direction, that all the sub- 
divisions of the column should change direction 
precisely at the point where the leading subdi- 
vision changed; it is for this reason that that 
point ought to be marked in advance, and that 
it is prescribed that the guides direct their march 
on the marker, also that each chief of subdivi- 
sion shall not cause the change to commence till 
the guide of his subdivision has grazed the breast 
of this marker. 

231. Each chief will take care that his subdi- 
vision arrives at the point of change in a square 
with the line of direction : with this view, he 
will face to his subdivision when the one which 
precedes has commenced to turn or to wheel, and 
he will be watchful that it continues to march 
squarely until it arrives at the point where the 
change of direction is to commence. 

232. If, in changes of direction, the pivot of 
the subdivision which wheels should not clear the 
wheeling point, the next subdivision would be 
arrested and distances lost ; for the guide who 
conducts the marching flank having to describe 
an arc, in length about once and a half the front 
of the subdivision, the second subdivision would 
be already up with the wheeling point, whilst 
the first which wheels has yet the half of its 
front to execute, and hence would be obliged 
to mark time until that half be executed. It 
is therefore prescribed, that the pivot of each 
subdivision should take steps of nine or eleven 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON Y. 149 

inches in length, according to the swiftness of the 
gait, in order not to arrest the march of the next 
subdivision. The chiefs of subdivision will look 
well to the step of the pivot, and cause his step 
to be lengthened or shortened as may be judged 
necessary. By the nature of this movement, the 
centre of each subdivision will bend a little to 
the rear. 

233. The guides will never alter the length or 
the cadence of the step, whether the change of 
direction be to the side of the guide or to the op- 
posite side. 

234. The marker, placed at the wheeling point, 
will always present his breast to the flank of the 
column. The instructor w^ill take the greatest 
pains in causing the prescribed principles to be 
observed ; he will see that each subdivision only 
commences the change of direction when the 
guide, grazing the breast of the marker, has nearly 
passed him, and, that the marching flank does not 
describe the arc of too large a circle, in order that 
it may not be thrown beyond the new direction. 

235. In change of direction by wheel, the 
guide of the wheehng flank will cast his eyes over 
the ground at the moment of commencing the 
wheel, and will describe an arc of a circle whose 
radius is equal to the front of the subdivision. 

Article IY. 
To halt the coliunn. 

236. The column being in march, when the in- 
structor shall wish to halt it, he will command : 

13* 



150 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON V. 

1. Column, 2. Halt. 

237. At the second coram and, promptly re- 
peated by the chiefs of platoon, the cohimn will 
halt; the guides also will stand fast, although 
they may have lost both distance and dii*ection. 

238. If the command halt, be not repeated 
with tlie greatest vivacity, and executed at the 
same instant, distances will be lost. 

239. -If a guide, having lost his distance, seek 
to recover it after that command, he will only- 
throw his fault on the following guide, who, if he 
have marched well, will no longer be ac his prop- 
er distance; and if the latter regain what he has 
thus lost, the movement will be propagated to 
the rear of the column. 

AllTICLE Y. 

Being in column by platoon, to form to the right 
or leit into line of battle, either at a halt, or on 
the march. 

240. The instructor having halted the column, 
right in front, and wishing to form it into line of 
battle, will ])lace himself at platoon distance in 
front of the leading guide, face to him, and recti- 
fy, if necessary, the position of the guide beyond; 
which being executed, he will command : 

Left — Deess. 

241. At this command, which will not be re- 
peated by the chiefs of platoon, each of them will 
place himself briskly two paces outside of his 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON Y. 151 

guide, and direct the alignment of the platoon 
perpendicular to the direction of the column. 

242. Each chief having aligned his platoon^ 
will command Fkont, and return quickly to his 
place in column. 

243. This disposition being made, the instruc- 
tor will command : 

1. Left into line^ wheel. 2. Maech. 

244. At the command march^ briskly repeated 
by the chiefs of platoon, the front-rank man on 
the left of each platoon will face to the left, and 
place his breast lightly against the arm of the 
guide by his side, who stands fast; the platoons 
will wheel to the left on the principle of wheels 
from a halt, and in conformity to what is prescrib-. 
ed ]^o. 199. Each chief will turn to his platoon 
to observe its movement, and when the marching 
flank has approached near the line of battle, he 
will command : 

1. Platoon. 2. Halt. 

245. The command halt, will be given when 
the marching flank of the platoon is three paces 
from the line of battle. 

246. The chief of the second platoon, having 
halted it, will return to his place as a file closer, 
passing around the left of his subdivision. 

247. The captain having halted the first pla- 
toon, will move rapidly to the point at which the 
right of the company will rest in line of battle, 
and command : 



152 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON Y. 

Eight — Dress. 

248. At this command, the two platoons will 
dress up on the alignment; the front-rank man on 
the right of the leading platoon, who finds him- 
self opposite the instructor established on the di- 
rection of the guides, will place his breast lightly 
against the left arm of this oflBcer. The captain 
will direct the alignment from the right on the 
man on the opposite flank of the company. 

249. The company being aligned, the captain 
will command : 

Front. 

250. The instructor seeing the company inline 
of battle, will command : 

Guides — Posts. 

251. At this command, the covering sergeant 
will cover the captain, and the left guide will re- 
turn to his place as a file closer. 

252. If the column be left in front, and the in- 
structor should wish to form it to the right into 
Une of battle, he will place himself at platoon dis- 
tance in front of the leading guide, face to him, 
and rectify, if necessary the position of the guide 
beyond; which being executed, he will com- 
mand : 

1. Right into line, wheel. 2. March. 

253. At the command march, the front-rank 



SCHOOL OF TnE COMPANY LESSON Y. 153 

man on tlie right of each platoon will face to the 
right and placje his breast lightly against the left 
arm of the guide ]3y his side, who stands fast; 
each platoon will wheel to the right, and will be 
halted by its chief, when the marching tiank has 
approached near the line of battle ; for this puF' 
pose the chief of each platoon will command : 

1. Platoon. 2. Halt 

254. The command Tialt^ will \>e given when 
the marching flank of the platoon is three paces 
from the line of battle. The chief of the second 
platoon having halted his platoon, will resume 
his place in the rank of file closers. 

255. The captain having halted the first pla- 
toon, will move briskly to the point at which the 
left of the company will rest, and command: 

Left — Dekss. 

256. At this command, the two platoons will 
dress up on the alignment ; the man on the left 
of the second platoon, opposite the instructor, 
will place his breast lightly against the right arm 
of this officer, and the captain will direct the 
alignment from the left on the man on the oppo- 
site flank of the company. 

257. The company being aligned, the captain 
will command : 

Fkont. 

258. The instructor will afterwards command; 



154 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON Y. 

Guides — Posts. 

259. At this command, the captain will move 
to the right of his company, the covering ser- 
geant will cover him, and the left guide will re- 
turn to li is place as a tile closer. 

260. The instructor may omit the command 
left or right dress^ previous to commanding left 
or right into line^ wheels unless after rectifying 
the position of the guides, it should hecome nec- 
essary to dress the platoons, or one of them, lat- 
erally to the right or left. 

261. The mstructor, before the command left 
(or right) into line, wheel^ will assure himself that 
the rearmost platoon is at its exact wheeling dis- 
tance from the one in front. This attention is im- 
portant, in order to detect negligence on the part 
of guides in this essential point. 

262. If the column be marching right in front, 
and the instructor should wish to form it into line 
without halting the column, he will give the com- 
mands prescribed Xo. 243, and move rapidly to 
platoon distance in front of the leading guide. 

263. At the command march^ briskly repeated 
by the chiefs of platoon, tlie left guides will halt 
short, the instructor, the chiefs of platoon and the 
platoons, \vill conform to what is prescribed ]N'o. 
244 and following. 

264. ^^ the column be in march left in front, 
this formation will be made according to the 
same principles, and by inverse means. 

265. If the column be marching right in front, 
and the instructor should wish to form it into 
line without halting the column, and to march 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — ^LESSON V. 155 

the company in line to the front, he will com- 
mand : 

1. By platoons left wheel. 2. Maech. 

266. At the command inarch, briskly repeated 
by the chiefs of platoon, the left guides will halt : 
the man next to the left guide in each platoon 
will mark time: the platoons will wheel to the 
left, conforming to the principles of the wheel on a 
fixed pivot. When the right of the platoons shall 
arrive near the line of battle, the instructor will 
command: 

Z. Forward, i. March. 5. Guides right (or left). 

267. At the fourth command, given at the in- 
stant the wheel is completed, all the men of the 
company will move off together with the step of 
twenty-eight inches ; the captain, the chief of the 
second platoon, the covering sergeant, and the left 
guide will take their positions as in line of battle. 

268. At the fifth command, which will be given 
immediately after the fourth, the captain and 
covering sergeant, if not already there, will move 
briskly to the side on which the guide is designa- 
ted. The non-commissioned officer charged with 
the direction will move rapidly in front of the 
guide, and will be assured in his line of march by 
the instructor, as is prescribed iSTo. 104. That 
non-commissioned officer will immediately take 
points on the ground as indicated in the same 
number. The men will take the touch of elbows 
to the side of the guide, conforming themselves to 
the principles of the march in line. 



156 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON YI. 

269. The same principles are applicable to a 
column left in front. 



LESSO:^' SIXTH. 

Article I. 

To break tlie company into platoons, and to in- 
form the company. 

TO break the company into platoons. 

270. The company marcliing in the cadenced 
step, and supposed to make part of a column, 
right in front, when the instructor shall wish to 
cause it to break by platoon, lie will give the or- 
der to the captain, who will command : 1. Break 
into platoons^ and immediately place himself be- 
fore the centre of the first platoon. 

271. At the command hrealc into platoons^ the 
first lieutenant will pass quickly around the left 
to the centre of his platoon, and give the caution : 
Mark time. 

272. The captain will then command : 2. March, 

273. The first platoon will continue to march 
straight-forward ; the covering sergeant will 
move rapidly to the left flank of this platoon 
(passing by the front rank) as soon as the flank 
shall be disengaged. 

274. At the command march^ given by the 
captain, the second platoon will begin to mark 
time; its chief will immediately add: 1. Eight 
oblique; 2. March. The last command will be 
given so that this platoon may commence ob*- 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. Pl 23 



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5"b ^'rcrz/ij «?^to Pl<(/.oons.~2io. 



270. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPACT LESSOX TI. 15T 

liquing the instant the rear rank of the first pla- 
toon shall have passed. The men will shorten 
the step in obliquing, so that when the command 
forward march is given, the platouii may have 
its exact distance. 

275. The guide of the second platoon being 
near the direction of the guide of the first, the 
chief of t!)e second will command Forward and 
add Maech, the instant that the guide of his 
platoon s'nall cover the guide of the first. 

276. Ii^ a column, left in front, the company 
will break into platoons by inverse means, ap- 
plying to the first platoon all that h.'is been pre- 
scribed for the second, and reciprocally. 

277. In this case, the left guide of the com- 
pany will shift to the right flank of the second 
platoon, and the covering sergeant will remain 
on the right of the first. 

TO EE-FORM THE COMPANY. 

278. The column, by platoon, being in march, 
right in front, wiien the instructor shall wish to 
cause it to form company, he will give the order 
to the captain, who will command : Form com- 
pany. 

279. Having given this command, the captain 
will immediately add : 1. First platoon ; 2. Right 
oMique. 

280. The chief of the second platoon will cau- 
tion it to continue to march straight-forward. 

281. The captain will then command : 3. March. 

282. At this command, repeated by the chief 
of the second, the first platoon w^ill oblique to 

14 



158 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON VI. 

the right, in order to unmask the second ; the 
covering sergefuit, on the left of the first platoon, 
will return to the right of the company, passing 
by the front rank. 

283. When the first platoon shall have nearly 
unmasked the second, the captain will command: 
1. Marh time, and at the instant the unmasking 
shall be complete, he will add: 2. Maech. The 
first platoon will then cease to oblique, and mark 
time. 

284. In the mean time the second platoon 
will have continued to march straight-forward, 
and when it shall be nearly up with the first, the 
captain will command Forward, and at the in- 
stant the two platoons shall unite, add March ; 
the first platoon will then cease to mark time. 

285. In a column, left in front, the same move- 
ment will be execuL^d by inverse means, the 
chief of the second platoon giving the command 
Forward., and the captain adding the command 
Maech, when the platoons are united. 

286. The guide of the second platoon, on its 
right, will pass to its left flank the moment the 
platoon begins to oblique; the guide of the first, 
on its right, remaining on that flank of the pla- 
toon. 

287. The instructor will also sometimes cause 
the company to break and re-form, by platoon, 
by his own direct commands. In this case, he 
will give the general commands prescribed for 
the captain above : 1. Brealc into platoons; 2. 
Maech ; and 1. Form company ; 2. Maech. 

288. If. in breaking the company into pla- 
toons, the subdivision that breaks off should 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON VI. 159 

mark time too long, it might, in a column of 
many subdivisions, arrest the march of the follow- 
ing one, whicJi would cause a lengthening of the 
column, and a loss of distances. 

289. Ii^ breaking into platoons, it is necessary 
that the platoons which oblique should not short- 
en the step too much, in order not to lose dis- 
tance in column, and not to arrest the march of 
the following subdivision. 

290. If a platoon obliques too far to a flank, it 
would be obliged to oblique again to the opposite 
flank, to regain the direction, and bj the double 
movement arrest, probably, the march of the 
following subdivision. 

291i 'ihe chiefs of those platoons which ob- 
lique will face to their platoons, in order to enforce 
the observance of the foregoing principles. 

292. When, in a column of several companies, 
they break in succession, it is of the greatest im- 
portance that each company should continue to 
march in the same step, without shortening or 
slackening, whilst that which precedes breaks, 
although tlie following company should close up 
on the preceding one. This attention is essential 
to guard against an elonsration of the column. 

293. Faults of but little moment, in a column 
of a few companies, would be serious inconve- 
niences in a general column of many battalions. 
Hence the instructor will give the greatest care 
in causing all the prescribed principles to be 
strictly observed. To this end, he will hold him- 
self on the directing flank, the better to observe 
all the movements. 



160 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON VI. 

Article IL 

Being in ftolumn, to break files to the rear, and 
to cause them to re-enter into line. 

294. The company being in march, and sup- 
posed to constitute a subdivision of a column, 
right (or left) in front, when the instructor shall 

*wish to cause files to break off, he will give the 
order to the captain, who will immediately turn 
to his company, and command : 

1. Two files from left (or right) to rear. 2. March. 

295. At the command march^ the two files on 
the left (or right) of the company will face to the 
right (or left) and double the others will con- 
tinue to march straight-forward. If the files are 
broken from the left the men will immediately 
file to the left, so that the odd numbers will 
cover the first and third, and the even numbers, 
the second and fourth files, from that flank of the 
company. If the files are broken from the right, 
the men will immediately file to the right so that 
the even numbers will cover the first and third, 
and the odd numbers, the second and fourth files 
from that fiank of the company. The men will 
be careful not to lose their distances and to keep 
aligned. 

296. If the instructor should still wish to 
break two files from the same side, he will give 
the order to the captain, who will proceed as 
above directed. 

297. At the command march^ given by the 
captain, the files already broken, advancing a 



YOL. 1. SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 



To Ireak files to the rear.— No. 294. 

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To convfernuirch. No. 843. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSOX TI. 161 

little the outer shoulder, will gain the space 
of two files to the right, if the files are broken 
from the left, and to the left, if the fxles are bro- 
ken from the right, shortening, at the same time, 
the step, in order to make room between them- 
selves and the rear-rank of the company for the 
files last ordered to the rear ; the latter will break 
hj the same commands, and in the same manner 
as the first. The men who double, should increase 
the length of the step, in order to prevent dis- 
tances from being lost. 

298. The instructor maj thus diminish the 
front of a company by breaking off successive 
groups of two files, but the new files must always 
be broken from the same side. 

299. The instructor, wishing to cause files bro- 
ken off to return into line, will give the order to 
the captain, who will immediately command : 

1. Two files into line. 2. Maech. 

300. At the command march, the first two 
files of those marching by the flank will return 
briskly into line, and the others will gain the 
space of two files by advancing the inner shoul- 
der toward the flank to which they belong. 

SOI. The captain will turn to his company, to 
watch the observance of the principles which 
have just been prescribed. 

303. The instructor having caused groups of 
two files to break one after another, and to re- 
turn again into line, will afterward cause two 
or three groups to break together, and for this 
purpose, will command : Four or six files from 
14* 



162 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON VI. 



left (or right) to rear ; Maech. The files desig- 
nated will face to the right (or left) and double, 
and will then immediately file into their proper 
places as indicated No. 295, taking care that the 
distances are preserved. 

303. The instructor will next order the cap- 
tain to cause two or three groups to be brought 
into line at once, who, turning to the company, 
will command : 

Four or six files into line — March. 

304. At the command imarc\ the files desig- 
nated will advance the inner shoulder, move up 
and form on the flank of the company by the 
shortest lines. 

305. As often as files shall break off to the 
rear, the guide on that flank will gradually close 
on the nearest front-rank man remaining in line, 
and he will also open out to make room for files 
ordered into Hne. 

303. The files which march in the rear are 
disposed in the following order: the left files as 
if tlie company was inarching by the right flank, 
and the right files as if the company was march- 
ing by the left flank. Consequently, whenever 
there is on the right or left of a subdivision, a 
file which does not belong to a group, it will be 
broken singly. 

307. It is necessary to the preservation of dis- 
tances in column, that the men should be habitu- 
ated in the schools of detail to execute the move- 
ments of this article with precision. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON YI. 163 

308. If the new files broken to the rear do 
not step well oif when filing to the left or right ; 
if, when files are ordered into line, they. do not 
move up with promptitude and precision, in 
either case, the following files will be arrested in 
their march, and thereby cause the column to be 
lengthened out. 

309. The instructor will place himself on the 
flank from which the files are broken, to assure 
himself of the exact observance of the princi- 
ples. 

310. Files will only be broken oif from the 
side of direction, in order that the whole com- 
pany may easily pass from the front to the flank 
march. 

Article III. 

To marcli the column in route and to execute 
the movements incident thereto. 

311. The swiftness of the route step will be 
one hundred and ten steps in a minute ; this 
swiftness will be habitually maintained in col- 
umns in route, when the roads and ground may 
permit. 

3j/:^. The company being at a halt, and sup- 
posed to constitute a subdivision of a column, 
when the instructor shall wish to cause it to 
march in the route siep, he will command : 

1. Column^ forward. 2. Guicle^ left (or right.) 
3. Boute 8tep. 4. March. 

313. At the command march^ repeated >\y the 



164 SCHOOL OF THE OOMPAK^Y LESSON TI. 

captain, the two ranks will step off together ; the 
rear rank will take in marching, by shortening a 
few steps, a distance of one pace (twenty-eight 
inches) from the rank preceding, which distance 
will be computed from the breasts of the men in 
the rear rank, to the knapsacks of the men in 
the front rank. The men, without further com- 
mand, will immediately carry their arms at tcill^ 
as indicated in the S, S., Xo. 228, or they may 
sling them on their backs muzzle up. They will 
no longer be required to march in the cadence 
pace, or with the same foot, or to remain silent. 
The files will march at ease ; but care will be 
taken to prevent the ranks from intermixing, the 
front rank from getting in advance of the guide. 
and the rear rank from opening to too great a 
distance. 

314. The company marching in the route step, 
the instructor will cause it to change direction, 
which will be executed without formal com- 
mands, on a simple caution from the captain ; 
the rear rank will come up to change direction 
in the same manner as the front rank. Each 
rank will conform itself, although in the route 
step, to the principles which have been pre- 
scribed for the change in closed ranks, with this 
difference only ; that the pivot man, instead of 
taking steps of nine, will take steps of fourteen 
inches, in order to clear the wheeling point. 

315. The company marching in the rout« ste]^ 
to cause it to pass to the cadence step, the in- 
structor will first order pieces to be brought to 
the right shoulder, and then command : 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON YI. 165 

1. Qiiich time, 2. Maeoh. 

316. At the command marcJi^ the men will re- 
sume the cadenced step, and will close so as to 
leave a distance of sixteen inches between each 
rank. 

317. The company marching in the cadenced 
pace, the instructor, to cause it to take the route 
step, will command : 

1. Route step, 2. Maech. 

318. At the command march^ the front rank 
will continue the step of twenty-eight inches, the 
rear rank will take, by gradually shortening the 
step, the distance of twenty-eight inches from 
the front rank ; the men will carry their arms at 
will. 

319. If the company be marching in the route 
step, and the instructor should suppose the neces- 
sity of marching by the flank in the same dkec- 
tion, he will command : 

1. Corrfpany hy the right (or left) flanlc. 2. By 
file left (or right.) 3. Maech. 

320. At the command march^ the company 
will face to the right (or left) in marching, the cap- 
tain will place himself by the side of the guide 
who conducts the leading flank : this guide will 
wheel immediately to the left or right ; all the 
files will come in succession to wheel on the same 
spot as the guide ; if there be files broken ofl* to 
the rear, they will, by wheeling, regain their re- 



166 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON VL 

spective places, and follow tlie movement of the 
company. 

321. The instructor having caused the com- 
pany to be again formed into line, will exercise 
it in increasing and diminishing front, by platoon, 
which will be executed by the same commands, 
and the same means, as if the company were 
marching in the cadenced step. When the com- 
pany breaks into platoons, the chief of each will 
move to the flank of his platoon, and will take 
the place of the guide, who will step back into 
the rear rank. 

322. The company being in column, by pla- 
toon, and supposed to march in the route step, 
the instructor can cause the front to be dimin- 
ished and increased, by section, if the platoons 
have a front of twelve files or more. 

323. The movements of diminishing and in- 
creasing front, by section, will be executed ac- 
cording to the principles indicated for the same 
movements by platoon. The right sections of 
platoons will be commanded by the captain and 
first lieutenant, respectively ; the left sections, by 
the two next subalterns in rank, or, in their ab- 
sence, by sergeants. 

324. The instructor wishing to diminish by 
section, will give the order to the captain, who 
will command : 

1. Br eaTc into sections. 2. Maech. 

325. As soon as the platoons shall be broken, 
each chief of section will place himself on its 
directing flank in the front rank, the gJiides, who 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON YI. 167 

will be thus displaced, will fall back into the rear- 
rank : the file closers will close up to within one 
pace of this rank. 

326. Platoons will be broken into sections 
onlj in the column in route, the raovement will 
never be executed in the manoeuvres, whatever 
may be the front of the company. 

327. When the instructor shall wish to re-form 
platoons, he will give the order to the captain, 
who will command : 

1. Form platoons. 2. Maech. 

328. At the first command, each chief of sec- 
tion will place himself before its centre, and the 
guides will pass into the front rank. ^ At the 
command mo/rch^ the movement will be executed 
as has been prescribed for forming company. 
The moment the platoons are formed, the chiefs 
of the left sections will return to their places as 
file closers. 

329. The instructor will also cause to be exe- 
cuted the diminishing and increasing front by 
files, as prescribed in the preceding article, and 
in the same manner, as if marching in the ca- 
denced step. When the company is broken into 
sections, the subdivisions must not be reduced to a 
front of less than six files, not counting the chief 
of the section. 

330. The company being broken by platoon, 
or by section, the instructor will cause it, march- 
ing in the route step, to march by tlie flank in 
the same direction, by the commands and the 
means indicated, Nos. 319 and 320. The mo- 



168 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON^ TI. 

ment the subdivisions shall face to the right (or 
left), the first file of each will wheel to the left 
(or right), in marching, to prolong the direction, 
and to unite with the rear file of the subdivision 
immediately preceding. The file closers will take 
their habitual places in the march by the flank, 
before the union of the subdivisions. 

331. If the company be marching b^ the right 
flank, and the instructor should wish to undoubie 
the files, which might sometimes be found neces- 
sary, he will inform the captain, who, after caus- 
ing the cadenced step to be resumed, and arms 
to be shouldered or supported, will command : 

1. In two ranks^ uiidouble files-. 2. Maech. 

S32. At the second command, the odd num- 
bers will continue to march straight-forward, the 
even numbers will shorten the step, and obliquing 
to the left, will place themselves promptly behind 
the odd numbers : the rear rank will gain a step 
to the left so as to retake the touch of elbows 
on the side of the front rank. 

333. If the company be marching by the left 
flank, it will be the even numbers who will con- 
tinue to march forward, and the odd numbers 
who will undoubie. 

334. If it be found necessary, from the narrow- 
ness of the way or other cause, to reduce the 
front still further, the captain, on an intimation 
from the instructor, will command : 

1. In one ranh^ undoubie files. 2, Maech. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPAITT — LESSON YI. 169 

335. At the command march^ the right or left 
guide, with the leading front-rank man, will con- 
tinue the march, the rear-rank man stepping in 
rear of Ms tile-leader as soon as he is able to 
pass ; the other files marking time. The second 
file, and successively all the other files, will step 
ofi" as soon as sufficient distance is gained, the 
front-rank man of each file following imme- 
diately the rear-rank man of the file next in front 
of him, and each rear-rank man taking his place 
as above indicated. 

336. If the instructor wishes to double files, 
he will so indicate to the captain, who will com- 
mand: 

1. In two ranks^ double files. 2. Maech. 

337. At the command march^ the rear-rank 
men will take a side step to the right (or left), 
and each rank will close up on its leading file. 

3S8. If the instructor should wish again to 
double the files, he will give the order to the 
captain, who will command : 

1. In four ranks ^ double files. 2. Maech. 

339. At the command march., the files will 
double in the manner as explained, when the com- 
pany faces by the right or the left fiank. The in- 
structor will afterward cause the route step to 
be resumed. 

340. The various movements prescribed in this 
lesson may be executed in double quick time. 
The men wiU be brought, by degrees, to pass 

15 



170 SCHOOL OF THE OOMPAITr— LESSON TL 

over at this gait about eleven hundred yards in 
seven minutes. 

341. AVhen the company marching in tlie route 
step shall halt, the rear rank will close up at the 
command halt, and tlie whole will shoulder arms. 

342. Marching in the route step, the men will 
be permitted to carry their pieces in the manner 
they shall find most convenient, paying attention 
only to holding the muzzles up, so as to avoid 
accidents. 

Article IY. 
Countermarch. 

343. The company being at a halt, and sup- 
posed to constitute part of a column, right in 
front, when the instructor shall wish to cause it 
to countermarch, he will command : 

1. Countermarch. 2. Company, right — Face. 
3. By file left. 4. March. 

344. At the second command, the company 
will face to the right, the two guides to the right 
about ; the captain will go to the right of his 
company and cause two files to break to the rear, 
and then place liimself by the side of the front- 
rank man, to conduct him. 

345. At the command march, both guides will 
stand fast ; the company will step ott' smartly ; 
the first file, conducted by the captain, will wheel 
around the right guide, and direct its march 
along the front rank so as to arrive behind, and 
two paces from the left guide; each tile will 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON YI. l7l 

come in ?inccession to wheel on the same ground 
aro'jnd tlie right guide; the leading tile having 
arrived at a point opposite to the left guide, the 
captain will command : 

^. 
1. Company. 2. Halt. 3. Fkont. 4. Eight— 
Deess. 

346. The first command will he ^iven atybwr 
paces from the point where the leading tile is to 
rest. 

347. At the second command, the company 
will halt. 

348. At the third, it will face to the front, 

349. At the fourth, the company wdl dress by 
the right; the captain will step two ])aces out- 
side of the left guide, now on the right, and di- 
rect the alignment, so that the front rank may be 
enclosed between the two guides : the company 
being aligned, he will command Front, and j)lace 
himself before the centre of the company as if in 
column ; the guides, passing along the front rank, 
will shift to their proper places, on the right and 
left of that rank. 

350. In a column, by platoon, the counter- 
march will be executed by the same commands, 
and according to the same principles; tiie guide 
of each platoon will face about, and its chief will 
place himself by the side of the tile on the right, 
to conduct it. 

351. In a column, left in front, the counter- 
march will be executed by inverse commands 
and means, but according to the same princij)les. 
Thus, the movement will be made by the right 



172 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — ^LESSON VI. 

flank of subdivisions, if the right be in front, and 
by the left flank, if the left be in front ; in both 
cases the subdivisions will wheel by file to the 
side of the front rank. 

Aetiolb Y. 

Being in column by platoon, to form on the 
right (or left) into line of battle. 

352. The column by platoon, right in front, 
being in march, the instructor, wishing to form it 
on the right into line of battle, will command : 

1. On the right into line, 2. Guide right, 

353. At the second command, the guide of 
each platoon will shift quickly to its right flank, 
and the men will touch elbows to the right ; the 
column will continue to march straight-forward, 

354. The instructor having given the second 
command, will move briskly to the point at 
which the right of the company ought to rest in 
line, and place himself facing the point of direc- 
tion to the left which he will choose. 

355. The line of battle ought to be so chosen 
that the guide of each platoon, after having 
turned to the right, may have, at least, ten paces 
to take before arriving upon that line. 

356. The head of the column being nearly op- 
posite to the instructor, the chief of the first pla- 
toon will command ; 1. Eight turn ; and when 
exactly opposite to that point, he will add: 

2. Maech. I 



— 1*^L_ SCIIOvOL OF TEIE COMPANY. Pl. 25. 

On the. ri'jht into line. — Xo. S52. 






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SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSON YL 173 

357. At the command marcli^ tlie first platoon 
will turn to the right, in conformity witli the 
principles prescribed in the S, S., ^o, 415. Its 
guide will so direct his march as to bring the 
front-rank man, next on his left, opposite to the 
instructor; the chief of the platoon will march 
l)6fore its centre ; and when its guide shall be 
near the line of battle he will command : 

1. Platoon, 2. Halt. 

358. At the command lialt^ which will be 
given at the instant the right of the platoon shall 
arrive at the distance of three paces from the 
line of battle, the platoon will halt; the files, not 
yet in line, will come up promptly. The guide 
will place himself on the line of battle, opposite 
to one of the three left files of his platoon ; he will 
face to the instructor, who will align him on the 
point of direction to the left. The chief of pla- 
toon having, at the same time, gone to the poinfc 
where the right of the company is to rest, will, as 
soon as he sees all the files of the platoon in line, 
command : 

BigJit—T>'KE&Q, 

359. At this, the first platoon will align itself; 
the front-rank man, who finds himself opposite to 
tiie guide, will rest his breast lightly against the 
right arm of tins guide, and the chief of the pla- 
toon, from the right, will direct the alignment on 
this man. 

360. The second platoon will continue to marcli 
i4» 



174 SCHOOL OF THE OOMPANT ^LESSON TI. 

straight-forward, until its guide shall arrive op- 
posite to the left file of the iirst; it will then 
turn to the right at the command of its chief, 
and march toward the line of battle, its guide 
directing himself on the left tile of the first pla- 
toon. 

361. The guide having arrived at the distance 
of three paces from the line of battle, this platoon 
will be halted, as prescribed for the first ; at the 
instant it halts, its guide will spring on the line 
of battle, opposite to one of the three left files of 
his platoon, and will be assured in his position by 
the instructor. 

362. The chief of the second platoon, seeing all 
its files in line, and its guide established on the 
direction, will command : 

Eight — Dress. 

363. Having given this command, he will re- 
turn to his place as a file closer, passing around 
the left; the second platoon will dress up on the 
alignment of the first, and, when established, the 
captain will command : 

Front. 

384. The movement ended, the instructor will 
command : 

Guides — Posts. 

385. At this command, the two guides will re- 
turn to their places in line of battle. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LES80IT VI. 175 

366. A column, by platoon, left in front, will 
form on the left into line of battle, according to 
the same principles, and, by inverse means, ap- 
plying to the second platoon what is prescribed 
for the first, and reciprocally. The chief of the 
second platoon having aligned it, from the point 
(Tappui, (the left,) will retire to his place as a 
file closer. The captain having halted the first 
platoon three paces behind the line of battle, will 
go to the sanie point to align this platoon, and 
then command : Feont. At the command, 
guides — posts, given by the instructor, the captain 
will shift to his proper flank, and the guides take 
their places in the line of battle. 

367. When the companies of a regiment are to 
be exercised, at the same time, in the school of 
the company, the colonel will indicate the lesson 
or lessons they are severally to execute. The 
whole will commence by a signal, and terminate 
in like manner : 

FOEMATIOINT OF A COMPANY FKOM TWO EANE3 INTO 
SINGLE EANK, AND EEOIPEOOALLY. 

368. The company being formed into two 
ranks in the manner indicated No. 15, Title L, 
and supposed to make part of a column, right or 
left in front, when the instructor shall wish to 
form it into single rank, he will command : 

.1. In one ranlc\ form company, 2. Maech. 

389. At the first command the right guide will 
face to the right. 



1T6 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSOR TI. 

370. At the command march, tlie right guide 
will step otf and march in the prolongation of the 
front rank. 

371. The first file will step off at the same time 
with the guide; the front-rank man will turn to 
the right at the first step, follow the guide, and 
be himself followed by the rear-rank man of his 
file, who will come to turn on the same spot 
where he had turned. The second file, and suc- 
cessively all the other files, will step oft' as has 
been prescribed for the first, the front-rank man 
of each file following immediately the rear-rank 
man of the file nert on his right. The captain 
will superintend the movement, and wlien the 
last man shall have stepped off, he will halt the 
company, and face it to the front. 

372. The file closers will take their places in 
line of battle, two paces in rear of the rank. 

373. The company being in single rank, when 
the instructor shall wish to form it into two 
ranks, he will command : 

1. In two ranlcs.foiim company. 2. Company, 
right— Face. 3. March. 

374. At the second command the company will 
face to the right ; the right guide and the man on 
the right will remain faced to the front. 

375. At the command march^ the men who 
have faced to the right, will step oft", and form files 
in the following manner : the second man in the 
rank will place himself behind the first to form 
the first file : the third will place himself by the 
side of the first in the front rank : the fourth be- 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON" VI. 177 

liind the tliird in the rear rank. All the others 
will, in like inani]er, place themselves, alternate- 
ly, in the front and rear rank, and will thus form 
files of two men, on the left of those already 
formed. 

376. The formations above described will be 
habitually executed by the right of companies ; 
but when the instructor shall wish to have them 
executed by the left, he will face the company 
about^ and post the guides in the rear rank. 

377. The formation will then be executed by 
the same commands, and according to the same 
principles as by the front rank ; the movement 
commencing with the left file, now become the 
right, and in each file by the rear-rank man, now 
become the front ; the left guide will conform to 
what has been prescribed for the right. 

378. The formation ended, the instructor will 
face the company to its proper front. 

379. When a battalion in line has to execute 
either of the formations above described, the 
colonel will cause it to break to the rear by the 
right or h^ft of companies, and will then give the 
commands just prescribed for the instructor. 
Each company will execute the movement as if 
acting singly. 

FORMATION OF A COMPANY FEOM TWO BANKS INTO 
FOUR, AND RECIPROCALLY, AT A HALT, AND IN 
MARCH. 

380. The company being formed in two ranks, 
at a halt, and supposed to form part of a colunm 
right in front, when the instructor shall wish to 
form it into four ranks, he will command : 



178 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY — LESSOR YI. 

1. Ill four ranks, form company. 2. Company 
left — Face. 3. Maech (or douUe quick — 
Maeuh). 

381. At the second command, the left guide 
will remain faced to the front, the company will 
face to the left; the rear rank will gain the dis- 
tance of one pace from the front rank by a side 
step to the left and rear, and the men will form 
into four ranks as prescribed in Xos. 138 and 
142. 

382. At the command march, the first file of 
four men will reface to the front without un- 
doubli ng. All the other files of four will step 
off, and closing successively to about five inches 
of the pi-ecedmg file, wnll halt, and immediately 
face to the front, the men remaining douhled. 

383. The file closers will take their new places 
in line of battle, at two paces in rear of the 
fourth rank. * 

384. The captain will superintend the move- 
ment. 

385. The company being in four ranks, when 
the instructor shall wish to form it into two 
ranks, he will command : 

1. In two ranks, form company. 2. Company 
right — Face. 3. Maech (or doulle quick — 
Maech). 

383. At the second command the left guide 
will stand fa^t, the company will face to the right. 

387. At the command march, tiie right guide 
will step off and march in the prolongation of the 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY LESSON YI. 179 

front rank. The leading file of four men will 
step off at the same time, the other files standing 
fast; tlie second file will step off when tliere shall 
he, between it and the first, space sufficient to 
form into two ranks. The following files will ex- 
ecute successively what has been prescribed for 
the second. As soon as the last file shall have 
its distance, the instructor will command ; 

1. Company, 2. Halt. 3. Feont. 

388. At the command /r(??i^, the company will 
face to the front and the tiles will undouble. 

389. The company being formed in two ranks, 
and marching to the front, when the instructor 
shall wish to form it into four ranks, he will com- 
mand : 

1. In four ranlcs^ form company. 2. By the left^ 
double files. 3. Makch (or double quick — 
March). 

390. At the command marc\ the left guide 
and the left file of the company will continue to 
march straight to the front ; the company will 
make a halt face to tlie left, the odd numbers pla- 
ing themselves behind the even numbers. The 
even numbers of the -rear rank will shorten their 
steps a little, to permit the odd numbers of the 
front rank to get between them and the even 
numbers of that rank. The files thus formed of 
fours, except the left file, will continue to march 
obliquely, lengthening their steps slightly, so as 
to keep constantly abreast of the guide ; each file 
will close successively on the file next on its left, 



180 SCHOOL OF THE COMPAIITT LESSOX YI. 

and when at the proper distance from that file, 
will face to the front by a half face to the right, 
and take the touch of elbows to the left. 

391. The company being in march to the front 
in four ranks, when the instructor shall wish to 
form it into two ranks, he will command : 

1. In two rariks^form company, 2. By the right j 
undouble files. 3. March (or double quick — 
March). 

392. At the command march^ the left guide 
and the left file of the company will continue to 
march straight to the front ; the company will 
make a half face to the right, and march ob- 
liquely, lengthening the step a little, in order to 
keep, as near as possible, abreast of the guide. 
As soon as the second file from the left shall have 
gained to the right the interval necessary for the 
left file to form into two ranks, the second file 
will face to the front by a half face to the left, 
and march straight -forward ; the left file will im- 
mediately form into two ranks, and take the 
touch of elbows to the left. Each file will exe- 
cute successively, what has just been prescribed 
for the file next to the left, and each file will 
form into two ranks when* the file next on its 
right has obliqued the required distance, and 
faced to the front. 

393. If the company be supposed to make part 
of a column, left in front, these difiPerent move- 
ments will be executed according to the same 
principles, and by inverse means, substituting the 
iDdication left for right. 



INSTEUCTIOIS' FOB SKIEMISHEKS. 181 



TITLE IV. 



INSTKUCTION' FOR SKIRMISHERS. 

General Principles and Division of the Inslri :- 
tion. 

1. The movements of skirmishers should be 
subjected to such rules as will give to the com- 
mander the means of moving them in any direc- 
tion with the greatest promptitude. 

2. It is not expected that these movements 
should be executed with the same precision as in 
closed ranks, nor is it desirable, as such exact- 
ness would materially interfere with their prompt 
execution. 

3. When skirmishers are thrown out to clear 
the way for, and to protect the advance of, 
the main corps, their movements should be so 
regulated by this corps, as to keep it constantly 
covered. 

4. Every body of skirmishers should have a 
reserve, the strength and composition of which 
will vary according to circumstances. 

5. If the body thrown out be within sustain- 
ing distance of the main corps, a very small re- 
serve will be sulFicient for each company, whose 
duty it shall be to fill vacant places, furnish the 
line with cartridges, relieve the fatigued, and 
serve as a rallying point for the skirmishers. 

6. If the main corps be at a considerable dis- 
tance, besides the company reserves, another re- 

IG 



182 IXSTRTJCTIOTT FOE SKIEMISHEES. 

serve will be required, composed of entire com- 
panies, which will be employed to sustain and 
reinforce such parts of the line as may be warmly 
attacked ; this reserve should be strong enough 
to relieve at least half the companies deployed as 
skirmishers. 

7. The reserves should be placed behind the 
centre of the line of skirmishers, the company 
reserves at one hundred and fifty, and the prin- 
cipal reserve at four hundred paces. This rule, 
however, is not invariable. The reserves, while 
holding themselves within sustaining distance of 
the line, should be, as much as possible, in posi- 
tion to afibrd each other mutual protection, and 
must carefully profit by any accidents of the 
ground to conceal themselves from the view of 
the enemy, and to shelter themselves from his 
fire. 

8. The movements of skirmishers will be exe- 
cuted in quick, or double quick time. The run 
will be resorted to only in cases of urgent neces- 
sity. 

9. Skirmishers will be permitted to carry their 
pieces in the manner most convenient to them. 

10. The movements will be habitually indica- 
ted by the sounds of the bugle. 

il. The officers, and, if necessary, the non- 
commissioned officers, will repeat, and cause the 
commands to be executed, as soon as they are 
given ; but to avoid mistakes, when the signals 
are employed, they will wait until the last bugle 
note is sounded before commencing the move- 
ment. 

12. When skirmishers are ordered to move rap- 



INSTRUCTION' FOR SKIRMISHERS. 183 

idly, the officers and non-commissioned officers 
will see that the men economize their strength, 
keep cool, and profit by all the advantages which 
the ground may offer for cover. It is only by 
this continual watchfulness on the part of all 
grades, that a line of skirmishers can attain success. 
13. This instruction will be divided into five 
articles, and subdivided as follows : 

Article I. 

1. To deploy forward. 

2. To deploy by the flank. 

3. To extend intervals. 

4. To close intervals. 

5. To relieve skirmishers. 

Article II. 

1. To advance in line. 

2. To retreat in line. 

3. To change direction. 

4. To march by the flank. 

Article TIL 

1. To fire at a halt. 

2. To fire marching. 

Article IY. 

1. The rally. 

2. To form column to march in any direction. 

3. The assembly. 



184 insteuotion foe skirmishers. 

Article Y. 

1. To deploy a battalion as skirmisliers. 

2. To rally the battalion deployed as skir- 
mishers. 

14. In the first four articles, it is supposed 
that the movements are executed by a company 
deployed as skirmishers, on a front equal to that 
of the battalion in order of battle. In the fifth 
article, it is supposed that each company of the 
battalion, being deployed as skirmishers, occupies 
a front of one hundred paces. From these two 
examples, rules may be deduced for all cases, 
whatever may be the numerical strength of the 
skirmishers, and the extent of ground they ought 
to occupy. 

ARTICLE I. 
DEPIiOYMENTS. 

15. A company may be deployed as skirmish- 
ers in two ways; forw^ard, and by the flank. 

16. The deployment forward will be adopted 
when the company is behind the line on which it 
is to be established as skirmishers : it will be de- 
ployed by the flank, when it finds itself already on 
that line. 

17. Whenever a company is to be deployed as 
skirmishers, it will \)e divided into two platoons, 
and each platoon will be subdivided into two sec- 
tions; the comrades in battle, forming groups of 
four men, will be careful to know and to sustain 



YOL. ]. IXSTRUCTIOX FOR SKTRIvriSHERS. Pl. 26. 



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First platoon as S^'irmWi 
take intervals 


er.9. On the left Me. 
-2^0. 22. 



INSTRUCTION" FOR SKIRMISHERS. 185 

each other. The captain will assure himself that 
the files in the centre of each platoon and section 
are designated. 

18. A company may be deployed as skirmishers 
on its right, left, or centre file, or on any other 
named file whatsoever. In this manner, skir- 
mishers may be thrown forward vv^ith the greatest 
possible rapidity on any ground they may be re- 
quired to occupy. 

19. A chain of skirmishers ought generally to 
preserve their alignment, but no advantages which 
the ground may present should be sacrificed to 
attain this regularity. 

20. The interval between skirmishers depends 
on the extent of ground to be covered ; but in 
general, it is not proper that the groups of four 
men should be removed more than forty paces 
from each other. The habitual distance between 
men of the same group in open grounds will be 
five paces ; in no case will they lose sight of each 
other. 

21. The front to be occupied to cover a bat- 
talion comprehends its front and the half of each 
interval which separates it from the battalion on 
its right and left. If a line, whose wings are not 
supported, should b^ covered by skirmishers, it 
will be necessary either to protect the flanks 
with skirmishers, or to extend them in front of 
the line so inv beyond the wings as effectually to 
oppose any attempt which might be made by the 
enemy's skirmishers to disturb the flanks. 

To deploy forward. 

22. A company being at a halt or in march, 



186 INSTKUCTION FOR SKIRMISHERS. 

when the captain shall wish to deploy it forward 
on the left tile of the first platcxm, holding the 
second platoon in reserve, he will command: 

1. First platoon — as sMrmishers. 

2. On the left file — ta]i:e intervals. 

3. March {or double quick — March). 

23. At the first command, tlie second and 
third lieutenants will place themselves rapidly 
two paces behind the centres of the right and 
left sections of the first ])latoon ; the fifth sergeant 
will move one })ace in front of the centre of the 
first platoon, and will place himself between the 
two sections in the front rank as soon as the 
movement begins; the fourth sergeant will place 
himself on the left of the front rank (jf the same 
platoon, as soon as he can pass. The captain 
wnll indicate to this sergeant the ])oint on which 
he wishes him to direct his march. The first 
lieutenant, placing himself before the centre of 
the second platoon, will command : 

Second platoon backward — March. 

24- At this command, the second jdatoon will 
step three paces to the rear, so gts to umnask the 
flank of the first platoon. It will then be halted 
by its chief, and the second sergeant will place 
himself on the left, and the third sergeant on the 
right flank of this platoon. If the company is on 
tlie march, the second platoon w^ill be halted at 
the first conmiand. 

25. At the command marc\ the left group of 



i:n'steuction for skirmishers. 18T 

four men, conducted by the fourth sergeant, will 
direct itself on the point indicated ; all t.li'^ other 
groups of fours throwing forward briskly the left 
shoulder, will move diagonally to tlie front in 
double quick time, so as to gain to the right the 
space of twenty paces, which shall be the dis- 
tance between each group and that immediately 
on its left. When the second group from the left 
shall arrive on a line with, and twenty paces 
from the first, it will march straight to the front, 
conforming to the gait and direction of the first, 
keeping constantly on the same alignment and at 
twenty paces from it. The third group, and all 
the others, will conform to what has just been 
prescribed for the second; they will arrive suc- 
cessively on the line. The right guide will arrive 
with the last group. 

23. The left guide having reached the point 
where the left of the line should rest, the captain 
will command the skirmishers to halt; the men 
composing each group of fours will tiien imme- 
diately deploy at five paces from each other, and 
to the right and left of the front-rank man of the 
even file in each group, the rear-rank men ydacing 
themselves on the left of their file leaders. If 
any groups be not in line at the command halt^ 
they will move up rapidly, conforming to what 
has just been prescribed. 

27. If, during the deployment, the line should 
be hred upon by the enemy, the captain may 
cause the groups of fours to deploy, as they gain 
their proper distances. 

28. The line being formed, the non-commis- 
sioned officers on the right, left, and centre, of the 



188 mSTBUOTION FOR SKIRMISHEES. 

platoon, will place themselves ten paces in rear of 
the line, and opposite the positions they respec- 
tively occupied. The chiefs of sections will 
promptly rectify any irregularities, and then place 
themselves twenty-five or thirty paces in rear of 
the centre of their sections, each having with him 
four men taken from the reserve, and also a 
bugler, who will repeat, if necessary, the signals 
sounded by the captain. 

29. Skirmishers should be particularly instruct- 
ed to take advantage of any cover which the 
ground may offer, and should lie flat on the 
ground whenever such a movement is necessary 
to protect them from the fire of the enemy. 
Regularity in the alignment should yield to this 
important advantage. 

30. When the movement begins, the first lieu- 
tenant will face the second platoon ahout, and 
march it promptly, and by the shortest line, to 
about one hundred and fifty paces in rear of the 
centre of the line. He will hold it always at this 
distance, unless ordered to the contrary. 

31. The reserve will conform itself to all the 
movements of the line. This rule is general. 

32. Light troops will carry their bayonets a- 
bitually in the scabbard, and this rule applies 
equally to the skirmishers and the reserve ; when- 
ever bayonets are required to be fixed, a particu- 
lar signal will be given. The captain will give a 
general superintendence to the whole deployment, 
and then promptly place himself about eighty 
paces in rear of the centre of the line. He will 
have with him a bugler and four men taken from 
the reserve. 



IXSTRTJCTION FOB SKTRMISHEES. 189 

33. The deployment may be made on the right 
or the centre of the platoon, by the same com- 
mands, substituting the indication right or centre^ 
for that of Z^/^ file. 

34. The deployment on the right or the centre 
will be made according to the principles pre- 
scribed above; in this latter case, the centre of 
the platoon will be marked by the right group of 
fours in the second section ; the fifth sergeant 
will place himself on the right of this group, and 
serve as the guide of the platoon during the de- 
ployment. 

35. In whatever manner the deployment be 
made, on the right, left, centre (or any file), the 
men in each group of fours will habitually deploy 
at five paces from each other, and upon the front- 
rank man of the even-numbered file. The deploy- 
ments will habitually be made at twenty paces 
interval ; but if a greater interval be required, it 
will be indicated in the command. 

36. If a company be thrown out as skirmish- 
ers, so near the main body as to render a reserve* 
unnecessary, the entire company will be extend- 
ed in the same manner, and according to the 
same principles, as for the deployment of a pla- 
toon. In this case, the third lieutenant will com- 
mand the fourth section, and a non-commissioned 
oflBcer designated for that purpose, the second 
section ; the fifth sergeant will act as centre 
guide; the file closers will place themselves ten 
paces in rear of the line, and opposite their places 
in line of battle. The first and second lieutenant 
will each have a bugler near him. 



190 INSTRUCTION FOR SKIRMISHERS. 

To deploy by the flank. 

37. The company being at a halt, when the 
captain shall wish to deploy it by the flank, hold- 
ing the first platoon in reserve, he will command: 

1. Second platoon — as shirmtshtrs. 2. JBy the 
right flank — take internals. 3. March (or 
double quick — March). 

38. At the first command, the first and third 
lieutenants will place themselves, respectively, 
two paces behind the centres of the first and sec- 
ond sections of the second platoon; the fifth ser- 
geant will place himself one pace in front of the 
centre of the second platoon ; the third sergeant, 
as soon as he can pass, will place himself on the 
right of the front rank of the same platoon. The 
captain will indicate to him the point on which 
he wishes him to direct his march. The chief of 
the first platoon will execute what has been pre- 
scrihed for the chief of the second platoon, Nos. 
23 and 24. The fourth sergeant will place him- 
self on tlie left flank of the reserve, the first ser- 
geant will remain on the right flank. 

39. At the second command, the first and third 
lieutenants will place themselves two paces be- 
hind the left group of their respective sections. 

40. At the command march, the second pla- 
toon will face to the right, and commence the 
movement; tlie left group of fours will stand fast, 
but will deploy as soon as there is room on its 
right, conforming to what has been prescribed 
No. 26 ; the third sergeant will place himself on 



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EiDlD iSEEiEEiilOtiiD Elannjl 



S,-cond pldtoon r/.s- SJchnnixlwr.^. Bij il\e riglitfanlc^ 
take ifiterva/s. — Xo. 87, 



I 



INSTRUCTION FOK SKIEMISHEES. 191 

the left of the right group, to conduct it ; the 
second group will halt at twenty paces from the 
one on its left, the third group at twenty paces 
from the second, and so on to the right. As the 
groups halt, they will face to the enemy, and de- 
ploy, as has heen explained for the left group. 

41. The chiefs of sections will pay particular 
attention to the successive deployments of the 
groups, keeping near the group about to halt, so 
as to rectify any errors which may be committed. 
"When the de|)loyraent is com})leted, they w^ill 
place themselves thirty paces in rear of the cen- 
tre of their sections, as has been heretofore pre- 
scribed. The non-commissioned officers will also 
place themselves as previously indicated. 

42. As soon as the movement commences, the 
chief of the first [)latoon, causing it to face about, 
will move it as indicated No. 30. 

43. The deployment may be made by the left 
flank according to the same principles, substitu- 
ting left flqjik iov right flanlc, 

44. If the captain should wish to deploy the 
company upon the centre of one of the platoons, 
he will command : 

1. Second platoon — as sTcirmishers. 2. By the 
right and left flanks — take intervals. 3. Maech 
(or double quick — March.) 

45. At the first command, the officers and non- 
commissioned officers will conform to what has 
been prescribed No. 38. 

46. At the second command, the first lieuten- 
ant will place himself behind the left group of 



; 



(92 IKSTEUCTION^ FOR 8KIEMISHER8. 

tlie right section of the second platoon, the third 
lieutenant behind the right group of the left sec- 
tion of the same platoon. 

47. At the command march^ the right section 
will face to the right, the left section will face to 
the left, the group on the right of this latter sec- 
tion will stand fast. The two sections will move 
oiFin opposite directions: the third sergeant will 
place himself on the left of the right file to con- 
duct it, the second sergeant on the right of the left 
file. The two groups nearest that which stands 
fast, will each halt at twenty paces from this 
group, and each of the other groups will halt at 
twenty paces from the^roup which is in the rear 
of it. Each group will deploy as heretofore pre- 

' scribed No. 40. 

48. The first and third lieutenants will direct 
the movement, holding themselves always abreast 
of the group which is about to halt. 

49. The captain can cause the deployment to 
be made on any named group whatsoever; in 
this case, the fifth sergeant will place himself be- 
fore the group indicated, and the deployment 
will be made according to the principles hereto- 
fore prescribed. 

60. The entire company may be also deployed, 
according to the same principles. 

To extend intervals. 

51. This movement, which is employed to ex- 
tend aline of skirmishers, will be executed accord- 
ing to the principles prescribed for deployments. 

63. If i^ ^^ supposed that the line of skirm^oV 



Vol. 1. INSTRUCTION FOR ^K^mu^uE\iS_^^J::_^ 



V 






i^y.u^l^^^.—-^-'^— 



CCOL 



IKSTEIJCTIOir FOE SKIEMI8HERS. 193 

ers is at a halt, and that the captain wishes to ex- 
tend it to the left, he will command : 

1. By the leftflanlc (so many paces) extend inter- 
vals, 2. Maech (or double quick — Maech). 

53. At the command marc\ the group on the 
right will stand fast, all the other groups will face 
to the left, and each group will extend its inter- 
val to the prescribed distance by the means indi- 
cated No. 40. 

54. The men of the same group will continue 
to preserve between each other the distance of 
five paces, unless the nature of the ground should 
render it necessary that they should close nearer, 
in order to keep in sight of each other. The in- 
tervals refer to the spaces between the groups, 
and not to the distances between the men in each 
group. The intervals will be taken from the 
right or left man of the neighboring group. 

55. If the line of skirmishers be marching 
to the front, and the captain should wish to ex- 
tend it to the right, he will command : 

1. On the left group (so many paces) extend inter- 
vals. 2. Maech (or douMe quich — Maech). 

68, The left group, conducted by the guide, 
will continue to march on tlie point of direction : 
the other groups throwing forward the left shoul- 
der, and taking the double quick step, will open 
their intervals to the prescribed distance, by tlie 
means indicated ¥o. 25, conforming also to what 
is prescribed No. 54. 

n 



194 LCfSTEUCTION FOR SKIEMISHEES. 

57. Intervals may be extended on the right, 
centre, (or any group) of the line, according to 
the same principles. 

68. If in extending intervals, it be intended 
that one company or platoon should occupy aline 
which had been previously occupied by two, the 
men of the company or platoon which is to retire, 
will fall successively to the rear as they are re- 
lieved by the extension of the intervals. 

To close intervals. 

59. This movement, like that of opening inter- 
vals, will be executed according to the principles 
prescribed for the deployments. 

60. If the line of skirmishers be halted, and 
the captain should wish to close intervals to the 
left, he will command: 

1. By the left flank {so many paces) close inter- 
vals. 2. March (or double quich — March). 

01. At the command marc\ the left group 
will Stand f^ist, the other groups ayIII face to the 
left and close to the prescribed distance, eacli 
group focing to the enemy as it attains its proper 
distance. 

6?;. If the line be marching to the front, the 
captain will command : 

1. On tJie left group (so many paces) close inter- 
vals. 2. March (or double quick — March). 

63. Tlie left group, conducted by the guide, 



Vol. 1. 



INSTRoCrrOi ;H3B SKliUiLSliERS. 



PL. 29. 




IXSTETJCTIO:^' FOR SKIRMISHERS. 195 

will continue to move on in the direction previ- 
ously indicated ; the other groups, advancing 
the right shoulder, will close to the left, until 
the intervals are reduced to the prescribed dis- 
tance. 

Qi, Intervals may be closed on the right, 
centre (or any group) according to the same 
principles. 

85. Vv'hen intervals are to be closed up, in 
order to reinforce a line of skirmishers, so as to 
cause tvro companies to cover the ground which 
had been previously occupied by one, the new 
company will deploy so as to finish its move- 
ment at twenty paces in rear of the line it is 
to occupy, and the men will successively move 
upon that line, as they shall be unmasked by 
the men of the old company. The reserves of 
the two companies will unite behind the centre 
of the line. 



To relieve a company deployed as skirmisliers. 

.GO. When a company of skirmishers is to be 
relieved, the captain Vvill bo advised of the inten- 
tion, which he Vv'ill immediately communicate to 
his first and second lieutenants. 

67. The new company will execute its deploy- 
ment forward, so as to fmish the movement at 
about twenty paces in rear of the line. 

63. Arrived at this distance, the men of the 
new company, by command of their captain, 
will advance rapidly a few paces beyond the old 
line, and Iialt; the new line being established, 



196 INSTRUCTIO:^' F02 SKIRMISHEES. 

the old company will assemble on its reserve, 
taking care not to get into groups of fours until 
they arc beyond the fire of the enemy. 

69. If the skirmishers to be relieved are march- 
ing in retreat, the company thrown out to relieve 
them will deploy by the flank, as prescribed l^o. 
38, and following. The old skirmishers will con- 
tinue to retire with order, and having passed the 
new line, they will form upon the reserve. 



ARTICLE II. 

TO ADVANCE. 

To advance in line, and to retreat in lina 

70. When a platoon or a company deployed as 
skirmishers is marching hj the front, the guide 
will be habitually in the centre. Mo particular 
indication to this effect need be given in the com- 
mands, but if on the contrary it be intended that 
the directing guide should be on the right, or 
left, the command guide rights or guide left, 
will be given immediately after that of forward. 

71. The captain, wishing the line of skirmish- 
ers to advance, will command : 

1. Forward. 2. Maech (or doutle quick — 
Maech). 

7.9. This command will be repeated with the 
greatest rapidity by the chiefs of sections, and in 
case of need, by the sergeants. This rule is gen- 



INSTEUCTIOX rOE SKIRMISHERS. 197 

eral, whether the skirmishers march hj the front 
or hj the flank. 

73. At the first command, the three sergeants 
will move briskly on the line, the first on the 
right, the second on the left, and the third in the 
centre. 

74. At the command march, the line will 
move to the front, the guide charged with the 
direction will move on the point indicated to 
him, the skirmishers will hold themselves aligned 
on this guide, and preserve their intervals to- 
ward him. 

75. The chiefs of sections will march imme- 
diately behind their sections, so as to direct their 
movements. 

76. The captain will give a general superin- 
tendence to the movement. 

77. When he shall wish to halt the skirmishers, 
he will command : 

Halt. 

78. At this command, briskly repeated, the 
line will halt. The chiefs of sections will 
promptly rectify any irregularity in the align- 
ment and intervals, and after taking every possi- 
ble advantage which the ground may ofier for 
protecting the men, they, with the three ser- 
geants in the line, will retire to their proper 
places in rear. 

79. The captain wishing to march the skir- 
mishers in retreat, will command : 

1. In retreat. 2. March (or double quiclc — 
March.) 
It* 



198 i:S^STETJCTIOX FOE SKIRMISHEES. 

80. At the first command, the three ser- 
geants will move on the line as prescribed Ko. 
73. 

81. At the command march^ the skirmishers 
will face about individually, and march to the 
rear, conforming to the principles prescribed 
ITo. 74. 

82. The officers and sergeants will use every 
exertion to preserve order. 

83. To halt the skirmishers, marching in re- 
treat, the captain will command : 

Halt. 

84. At this command the skirmishers will halt, 
and immediately face to the front. 

85. The chiefs of sections and the three guides 
will each conform himself to what is prescribed 
1^0. 78. 

To change direction. 

88. If the commander of a line of skirmishers 
shall wish to cause it to change direction to the 
right, he will command : 

1. Biglit wheel. 2. March (or double quiclc — 
March). 

87. At the command marcli^ the right guide 
will mark time in his place ; the left guide will 
move in a circle to the right, and that he may 
properly regulate his movements, will occasion- 
ally cast his eves to the right, so as to observe the 
direction of the line, and the nature of the ground 



INSTEUCTION" FOE SKIKMISHEES. 199 

to be passed over. The centre guide will also 
march in a circle to the right, and in order to 
conform his movements to the general direction, 
will take care that his steps are only half the 
length of the steps of the guide on the left. 

88. The skirmishers will regulate the length 
of their steps by their distance from the march- 
ing flank, being less as they approach the pivot, 
and greater as they are removed from it ; they 
will often look to the marching flank, so as to 
preserve the direction and their intervals. 

89. When the commander of the line shall 
wish to resume the direct march, he will com- 
mand : 

1. Forward. 2. Maech. 

90. At the command marcJi^ the line will 
cease to wheel, and the skirmishers will move 
direct to the front ; the centre guide will march 
on the point which will be indicated to him. 

91. If the captain should wish to halt the 
line, in place of moving it to the front, he will 
command : 

Halt, 

92. At this command, the line will halt. 

93. A change of direction to the left will be 
made according to the same principles, and by 
inverse means. 

94. A line of skirmishers marching in retreat 
will change direction by the same means, and by 
the same commands, as a line marching in ad- 



200 INSTEUCTIO:S' FOE SKIEMISIIEES. 

vance ; for example, if the captain shonld wish 
to refuse his left, now become the right, he will 
command: 1. Left loheel. 2. Maech. At the 
command halt^ the skirmishers will face to the 
enemy. 

95. But if, instead of halting the line, the 
captain should wish to continue to march it in 
retreat, he will, when he judges the line has 
wheeled sufficiently, command : 

1. Ill retreat. 2. Maech. 

To marcli by the flank. 

J)8. The captain, wishing the skirmishers to 
march by the right flank, will command : 

1. By the right flank. 
2. Maech {or double quick — Maech). 

97. At the first command, the three sergeants 
will place themselves on the line. 

9S. At the command march^ the skirmishers 
will face to the right and move off; the right 
guide will place himself by the side of the lead- 
ing man on the right to conduct him, and will 
march on the point indicated ; each skirmisher 
will take care to follow exactly in the direction 
of the one immediately preceding him, and to 
preserve his distimce. 

9^, The skirmishers may be marched by the 
left flank, according to the same principles, and 
by the same commands, substituting left for 



IXSTEUCTIOX FOR SKIEMISHERS. 201 

right ; the left guide will place himself by the 
side of the leading man to conduct him. 

100. If the skirmishers be marching bj the 
flank, and the captain should wish to halt them, 
he will command : 

Halt. 

101. At this command, the skirmishers will 
halt and face to the enemy. The officers and 
sergeants will conform to what has been pre- 
scribed iS'o. 78. 

102. The reserve should execute all the move- 
ments of the line, and be held always about one 
hundred and fifty paces from it, so as to be in 
position to second its operations. 

103. ^hen the chief of the reserve shall wish 
to march it in advance, he will command : 1. 
Platoon forward. 2. Guide left. 3. Maech. If 
he should wish to march it in retreat, he will 
command: 1. In retreat. 2. Maech. 3. Guide 
right. At the command halt^ it will reface to 
the enemy. 

104. The men should be made to understand 
that the signals or commands, such as forward^ 
moans that the skirmishers shall march on the 
enemy ; in retreat, that they shall retire, and to 
the right or left flanlc^ that the men must face 
to the right or left, whatever may be their posi- 
tion. 

105. If the skirmishers be marching by the 
flank, and the captain should wish to change di- 
rection to the right (or left), he will command: 
1. By file right (or left). 2. Maech. These 



202 INSTRUCTION FOR SKIRMISHERS. 

. movements will also be executed bj tbe signals 
Nos. 14 and 15. 



ARTICLE III. 
THE FIBINGS. 

106. Skirmisbers will fire eitber at a bait or 
marcbing. 

To fire at a halt. 

107. To cause tbis fire to be executed, tbe cap- 
tain will command : 

Commence — Fieino. 

108. At tbis command, briskly repeated, tbe 
men of tbe front rank will commence firing; 
tbey will reload rapidly, and bold tbemselves in 
readiness to fire again. During tbis time tbe 
men of tbe rear rank will come to a ready, and 
as soon as tbeir respective file leaders bave load- 
ed, tbey Avill also fire and reload. Tbe men of 
eacb file will tbus continue tbe firing, conform- 
ing to tbis principle, tbat tbe one or tbe otber 
sball always bave bis piece loaded. 

109. Ligbt troops sbould be always calm, so 
as to aim witb accuracy ; tbey sbould, moreover, 
endeavor to estimate correctly tbe distances be- 
tween tbemselves and tbe enemy to be bit, and 
tbus be enabled to deliver tbeir fire witb tbe 
greater certainty of success. 

110. Skirmisbers will not remain in tbe same 



INSTEUCTION FOE SKIEMISHEE8. 203 

place whilst reloading, unless protected by acci- 
dents in the ground. 



To fire marctLing. 

111. This fire will he executed by the same 
commands as the fire at a halt. 

112. At the command commence firing^ if the 
line be advancing, the front-rank man of every 
file will halt, fire, and reload before throwing 
himself forward. The rear-rank man of the same 
file will continue to march, and after passing ten 
or twelve paces beyond his front-rank man, will 
halt, come to a ready, select his object, and fire 
when his front-rank man has loaded ; the fire will 
thus continue to be executed by each file ; the 
skirmishers will keep united, and endeavor, as 
much as possible, to preserve the general direc- 
tion of the alignment. 

113. If the line be marching in retreat, at the 
command commence firing^ the front-rank man of 
every file will halt, face to the enemy, fire, and 
then reload whilst moving to the rear ; the rear- 
rank man of the same file will continue to march, 
and halt ten or twelve paces beyond his front- 
rank man, face about, come to a ready, and fire, 
when his front-rank man has passed him in re- 
treat and loaded ; after v/hich, he will move to 
the rear , reloading whilst so moving. The front- 
rank man in his turn, after marching briskly to 
the rear, will halt at ten or twelve paces from 
the rear-rank, face to the enemy, finish loading 
his piece and fire, conforming to what has just 



204 IN8TKI70TION FOE 8KIEMISHEES. 

been prescribed for the rear-rank man ; tlie firing 
v/ill thus be continued. 

114. If the company be marching by the right 
flank, at the command, commence firing^ the 
front-rank man of every file will face to the en- 
emy, step one pace forward, halt, and fire ; the 
rear-rank man w^ill continue to move forward. 
As soon as the front-rank man has fired, he will 
place himself briskly behind his rear-rank man 
and reload whilst marching. When he has 
loaded, the rear-rank man will, in his turn, face 
to the enemy, step one pace forward, halt, and 
fire, and returning to the ranks, will place him- 
self behind his front-rank man; the latter, in 
his turn, will act in the same manner, observing 
the same principles. At the command, cease 
firing^ the men of the rear rank will retake their 
original positions, if not already there. 

115. If the company be marching by the left 
flank, the fire wiU be executed according to the 
same principles, but in this case it will be the 
rear-rank man who will fire first. 

116. The following rules will be observed in 
the cases to which they apply. 

117. If the line be firing at a halt, or whilst 
marching by the flank, at the command forward 
— Masoh, it will be the men whose pieces are 
loaded, without regard to the particular rank to 
which they belong, who will move to the front. 
Those men whose pieces have been discharged, 
will remain in their places to load them before 
moving forward, and the firing w^ll be continued 
agreeably to the principles prescribed I^o. 112. 

118. If the line be firing either at a halt, ad- 



IXSTErCTION FOE SKIEMISHEES. 205 

vancing, or whilst inarching bj the flank, at the 
command, In retreat — Maech, the men whoss 
pieces are loaded vrill remain faced to the enemy. 
and will fire in this position; the men whose 
pieces are discharged will retreat loading them, 
and the fire will be continued agreeably to the 
principles prescribed Xo. 113. 

119. If the line of skirmishers be firing either 
at a halt, advancing, or in retreat, at the com- 
mand. By the right (or left) flanh — Maech, the 
men whose pieces are loaded will step one pace 
out of the general alignment, face to the enemy, 
and fire in this position ; the men whose pieces 
are unloaded will face to the right (or left) and 
march in the direction indicated. The men who 
stepped out of the ranks will place themselves, 
immediately after firing, upon the general direc- 
tion, and in rear of their front or rear-rank men, 
as the case may be. The fire will continued 
according to the principles prescribed Iso. 114. 

120. Skirmishers will be habituated to load 
their pieces whilst marching ; but they will be 
enjoined to halt always an instant, when in the 
act of charging cartridge, and priming. 

121. They should be practised to fire and load 
kneeling, lying down, and sitting, and much 
liberty should be allowed in these exercises, in 
order that they may be executed in the manner 
found to be most convenient. Skirmishers should 
be cautioned not to forget that, in Y*'hatever posi- 
tion they may load, it is important that the piece 
should be placed upright before ramming, in order 
that the entire charge of povfder may reach the 
bottom of the bore. 

]8 



206 IKSTEUCTIOX FOE SKIEMISHEES. 

12S, In commencing the fire, the men of the 
same rank should not all fire at once, and the 
men of the same file should be particular that 
one or the other of them be always loaded. 

123. In retreating, the officer commanding the 
skirmishers should seize on every advantage 
which the ground may present, for arresting the 
'^nemy as long as possible. 

194, At the signal to cease firing^ the captain 
vrill see that the order is promptly obeyed ; but 
the men who may not be loaded, will load. If 
the line be marching, it will continue the move- 
ment ; but the man of each file w^ho happens to 
be in front, wall wait until the man in the rear 
shall be abreast with him. 

123. If a line of skirmishers be firing advan- 
cing, at the command lialt^ the line will re-form 
upon the skirmishers who are in front ; when 
the line is retreating, upon the skirmishers who 
are in the rear. 

126^ Officers should watch with the greatest 
possible vigilance over a line of skirmishers ; in 
battle, they should neither carry a rifle or fowling 
piece. In all the firings, thcj, as well as the ser- 
geants, choul'I see that order and silence are pre- 
served, and that the skirmishers do not wander 
imprudently ; they should especially caution 
them to be calm and collected ; not to fire until 
they distinctly perceive the obiects at which they 
aim, and are sure that those objects are within 
proper range. Skirmishers should take advan- 
tage promptly, and with intelligence, of all shel- 
ter, and of all accidents of the ground, to con- 
ceal themselves from the view of the enemy, and 



vui.. I. lAbTKLXTIOX FOli SKIRMISHERS. fh. 80. 



-iLiiblSO tZ'Ll IDiaSQi3L5i3i3i3(3ayaflEL3i3SSi2!3S3Ei!3ELa 



^7? ;•<///?/ ly fours. — .'.V>. 1.0. 



To rally hy Seci'.onH. — Xo, 132, ■• 



1 



niHIix 



'^^ . . pj___- __j^ J ^ , 



21? rciUy on tlie rcserTC. — ITg. 14t. 



INSTRCICTIOI?' FOR SKIEMISHEES. 207 

to protect themselves from liis fire. It may often 
happen, tliLit intervals are momentarily lost when 
several men near each other find a common shel- 
ter ; but when thej quit this position, they 
should immediately resume their intervals and 
their places in line, so that they may not, by 
crowding, needlessly expose themselves to the 
fire of the enemy. 

AETICLE lY. 
THE RAIiljT. 
To form column. 

127. A company deployed as skirmishers, is 
rallied in order to oppose the enemy with better 
success ; the rallies are made at a run, and with 
bayonets fixed ; when ordered to rally, the skir- 
mishers fix bayonets without command. 

128. There are several ways of rallying, which 
the chief of the line will adopt according to cir- 
cumstances. 

1-39. If the line, marching or at a halt, be 
merely disturbed by scattered horsemen, it will 
not be necessary to fall back on the reserve, but 
the captain will cause bayonets to be fixed. If 
the horsemen should, hovrever, advance to charge 
the skirmishers, the captain will command, rally 
hy fours. The line will halt, if marching, and 
the four men of each group will execute this 
rally in the following manner: the front-rank 
man of the even-numbered file will take the po- 
sition of guard against cavalry ; the rear-rank 



208 INSTRUCTION FOR SKIRMISHERS. 

man of the odd-numbered file will also take the 
position of guard against cavalry^ turning hit; 
back to him, his right foot thirteen inches from 
the right foot of the forme]\ and parallel to it ; 
the front-rank man of the odd tile, and the rear- 
rank man of the even file, wiU also place them- 
selves back to back, taking a like position, and 
between the two men already established, facing 
to the right and left ; the right feet of the four 
men will be brought together, forming a square, 
and serving for mutual support. The four men 
in each group will come to a ready, fire as occa- 
sion may ofi'er, and load without moving their 
feet. 

130. The captain and chiefs of sections will 
each cause the four men who constitute his guard 
to form square, the men separating so as to 
enable him and the bugler to place themselves 
in the centre. The three sergeants will each 
promptly place himself in the group nearest him 
in the line of skirmishers. 

131. If the captain desires again to deploy the 
groups, he will command, deijloy as slHrmisJiers ; 
at which each group will deploy as prescribed 
No. 26. 

132. Whenever the captain shall judge these 
squares too weak, but should wish to hold his 
position by strengthening his line, he will com- 
mand : 

Rally l)y sections, 

133. At this command, the chiefs of sections 
will move rapidly on the centre group of their 
respective sections, or on any other interior group 



INSTEUCTION FOE SKIRMISHERS. 209 

whose position might offer a shelter, or other 
particular advantage ; the skirmishers will col- 
lect rapidly at a run on this group, and without 
distinction of numbers. The men composing the 
group on which the formation is made, will im- 
mediately form square, as heretofore explained, 
and elevate their pieces, the bayonets uppermost, 
in order to indicate the point on which the rally 
is to be made. The other skirmishers, as they 
arrive, will occupy and fill the open angular 
spaces between these four men, and successively 
rally around this first nucleus, and in such man- 
ner as to form rapidly a compact circle. The 
skirmishers will take, as they arrive, the position 
of charge bayonet, the point of the bayonet more 
elevated, and will cock their pieces in this posi- 
tion. The movement concluded, the two exterior 
ranks will fire as occasion may offer, and load 
without moving their feet. 

134. The captain will move rapidly with his 
guard, wherever he may judge his presence most 
necessary. 

135. The officers and sergeants will be particu- 
lar to observe that the rally is made in silence, 
and with promptitude and order ; that some 
pieces in each of their subdivisions be at all times 
loaded, and that the fire is directed on those 
points only where it will be most effective. 

136. If the reserve should be threatened, it 
will form into a circle around its chief. 

137. If the captain desires again to deploy the 
sections, he will command : form sections, at this, 
the chief of each will dress his section on that 
file of the circle which is faced towards the en- 

18* 



210 INSTEUCTION FOE SKIRMISHERS. 

emj, the men taking their proper places. The 
sections will then he deployed forward, or bj the 
flanks, on any file or group the captain may wish, 
as indicated Ko. 22, and following, and ^o. 37, 
and following. 

133, If the captain, or commander of a line of 
skirmishers, formed of many platoons, should 
judge that the rally by section does not offer 
sufficient resistance, he will cause the rally by 
platoons to be executed, and for this purpose, 
will command : 

Rally l)y 'platoons, 

139. This movement will be executed accord- 
ing to the same principles, and by the same 
means, as the rally by sections. The chiefs of 
platoon will conform to what has been prescribed 
for the chiefs of section. 

140. If the captain, or commander of the line 
of skirmishers, desires again to deploy the pla- 
toons, he will command: form 'platoons, and the 
movement will be executed as prescribed No. 137. 

141. The captain wishing to rally the skir- 
mishers on the reserve, will command * 

Rally on the reserve. 

142. At this command, the captain wiU move 
briskly on the reserve ; the officer who commands 
it will take immediate steps to form square; for 
this purpose, he will cause the half sections on 
the flanks to be thrown perpendicularly to the 
rear ; he will order the men to come to a ready. 



mSTETJCTIOlSr FOR SKIEMISHEES. 211 

143. The skirmishers of each section, taking 
the run, will form rapidly into groups, and upon 
that man of each group who is nearest tlie centre 
of the section. These groups will direct them- 
selves diagonally toward each other, and in such 
manner as to form into sections with the greatest 
possible rapidity while moving to the rear;'^the 
officers and sergeants will see that this formation 
is made in proper order, and the chiefs will direct 
their sections upon the reserve, taking care to un- 
mask it to the right and left. As the skirmishers 
arrive, they will continue and complete the for- 
mation of the square begun by the reserve, clos- 
ing in rapidly upon the latter, without regard to 
their places in Ime ; they will come to a ready 
without command, and fire upon the enemy; 
which will also be done by the reserve as soon 
as it is unmasked by the skirmishers. 

144. If a section should be closely pressed by 
cavalry w^liile retreating, its chief will command, 
halt ; at this command, the men will form rapidly 
into a compact circle around the officer, who will 
re-form his section and resume the march, the 
moment he can do so with safety. 

145. The formation of the square in a prompt 
and efficient manner requires coolness and activ- 
ity on the part of both officers and sergeants. 

148. The captain will also profit by every mo- 
ment of respite which the enemy's cavalry may 
leave him ; as soon as he can, he will endeavor 
to place liimself beyond the reach of their char- 
ges, either by gaining a position where he may 
defend himself with advantage, or by returning 
to the corps to which he belongs. For this pur- 



212 INSTETTCTION FOE SKIRMISHEES. 

pose, being in square, he will cause the company 
to break into column by platoons at half distance; 
to this effect, he will command : 

1. Form column, 2. Maech. 

147. At the command marc\ each platoon 
will dress on its centre, and the platoon which 
was facing to the rear will face about without 
command. The guides will place themselves on 
the right and left of their respective platoons, 
those of the second platoon will place themselves 
at half distance from those of the first, counting 
from the rear rank. These dispositions being 
made, the captain can move the column in what- 
ever direction he may judge proper. 

148. If he wishes to march it in retreat, he 
will command : 

1. In retreat, 2. March (or double quick— 
Maech). 

149. At the command march^ the column will 
immediately face by the rear rank (the file 
closers of the first platoon retaining their posi- 
tion), and move off in the opposite dn*ection. As 
soon as the column is in motion, the captain will 
command : 

3. Guide right (or left), 

150. He will indicate the direction to the lead- 
ing guide : the guides will march at their proper 
distances, and the men will keep aligned. 



INSTRUCTION FOE SKIRMISHERS. 213 

151. If again threatened by cavalry, tlie cap- 
tain will command : 

1. Form square. 2. March. 

152. At the command march, the column will 
halt ; the first platoon will face about briskly, and 
the outer halt-sections of each platoon will be 
thrown perpendicularly to the rear, so as to form 
the second and third fronts of the square. The 
officers and sergeants wnll promptly rectify any 
irregularities wiiich may be committed. 

153. If he should wish to march the column in 
advance, the captain will command : 

1. Form column. 2. March. 

154. Which will be executed as prescribed Ko. 
147. 

155. The column being formed, the captain will 
command : 

1. Forward. 2. March (or double quicTc — March). 
3. Guide left (or right). 

156. At the second command, the column will 
move forward, and at the third command, the 
men will take the touch of elbows to the side of 
the guide. 

157. If the captain should wish the column to 
gain ground to the right or left, he will do so by 
rapid wheels to the side opposite the guide, and 
for this ])urpose, will change the guide whenever 
it may be necessary. 



214 INSTRUCTION FOR SKIUMISHERS. 

158. ^f a company be in column by platoon, at 
half distance, liglit in front, the captain can de- 
ploy the tirst ])lat.()onas skirmishers by the means 
already explained; bnt if it shonld be his wisli to 
deploy the second platoon forward on the centre 
file, leavin<^ the first platoon in reserve, he will 
command : 

1. Second platoon — as sTcirmisTiers. 2. On the 
cente'*\iile — talce intei^vals. 3. March (or double 
quick — March). 

159. At the first command, the chief of the 
first platoon will cantion his platoon to stand fast; 
the chiefs of sections of the second platoon will 
place themselves before the centre of their sec- 
tions: tlie fifth sergeant will place himself one 
pace in front of the centre of the second platoon. 

160. At the second command, the chief of the 
right section, second platoon, will command: 
Section right face ; the chief of the left section: 
Section left face. 

161. At tlie command march^ these sections 
will move otf briskly in opposite directions, and 
having unmasked the first platoon, the chiefs of 
sections will res[)ectively command : By the left 
fianTc — March, and By the right flanh — March; 
and as soon as these sections arrive on the align- 
ment of the first platoon, they will command: 
As shirmisJiers — March. The groups will then 
deploy according to prescribed principles, on the 
right gronp of the left section, which will be di- 
rected by the fifth sergeant on the point indicated. 

162. if the captain should wish the deploy- 



INSTEUCTION FOE SKIEMISHEES. 21 § 

ment made by the flank, the second platoon wijl 
be moved to the front by the means above stated. 
and halted after passing some steps beyond the 
alignment of the first platoon; the deployment 
will then be made by the flank according to the 
principles prescribed. 

THE ASSEMBLY. 

163. A company deployed as skirmishers will 
be assembled when there is no longer danger of 
its being disturbed ; the assembly will be made 
habitually in quick time. 

164. The captain wishing to assemble the skir- 
mishers on the reserve, will command : 



Assemble on the reserve, 

165. At this command, the skirmishers will as- 
semble by groups of fours ; the front-rank men 
will place themselves behind their rear-rank men ; 
and each group of fours will direct itself on the 
reserve, where each will take its proper place in 
the ranks. When the company is re-formed, it 
will rejoin the battalion to which it belongs. 

168. It may be also proper to assemble the skir- 
mishers on the centre, or on the right or left of 
the line, either marching or at a halt. 

167. If the captain should wish to assemble 
them on the centre while marching, he will com- 
mand: 

Assemble on the centre. 



216 INSTEUCTIOI^ FOE SKIRMISHERS. 

168. At this command, the centre guide will 
continue to march directly to the front on the 
point indicated : the front rank man of the di* 
recting tile will follow the guide, and he covered 
by his rear-rank man ; the other two comrades of 
this group, and likewise those on their left, will 
march diagonally, advancing the left shoulder and 
accelerating the gait, so as to re-form the groups 
while drawing nearer and nearer the directing 
file ; the men of the right section will unite in the 
same manner into groups, and then upon the di- 
recting file, throwing forward the right shoulder. 
As they successively unite on the centre, the men 
will bring their pieces to the right shoulder. 

169. To assemble on the right, left (or any file) 
will be executed according to the same principles. 

170. The assembly of a line marching in retreat 
will also be executed according to the same prin- 
ciples, the front-rank men marching behind their 
rear-rank men. 

171. To assemble the line of skirmishers at a 
halt, and on the line they occupy, the captain will 
give the same commands; the skirmishers will 
face to the right or left, according as they should 
march by the right or left flank, re-form the 
groups w^hile marching, and thus arrive on the 
file which served as the point, of formation. As 
they successively arrive, the skirmishers will sup- 
port arms. 



Vol. 1. iNsiRUCTiox for skirmishers. Pl. 31. 



■1: 






.J^; 



1; 



■j,^oj :l ^^^ >i'^9^^ 



To deploy o Ixittdlloit <^^• S lei rm lain') -,•<, on ritjht of 
Sl^ih Companij. — J'o. Yli. 



INSTEUCTIO:^ FOR SKIRMISHEES. 217 

ARTICLE Y. 

TO DEPLOY A BATTAIilON AS SKIK- 
MISHERS AND TO RALLY THIS BAT- 
TALION. 

To deploy the battalion as skirinisliers. 

172. A battalion being in line of battle, if the 
commander should wish to deploy it on the right 
of the sixth company, holding the three right 
companies in reserve, he will signify^his intention 
to the lieutenant-colonel and adjutant, and also 
to the senior and junior majors, one of whom will 
be directed to take charge of the battalion reserve. 
He will point out to the lieutenant-colonel the di- 
rection he wishes to give the line, as well as the 
point where he wishes the right of the sixth 
company to rest, and to the commander of the 
reserve the place he may wish it established. 

173. The lieutenant-colonel will move rapidly 
in front of the riglit of the sixth company, and 
the adjutant in front of the left of the same com- 
pany. The commander of the reserve will dis- 
pose of it in the manner to be hereinafter indica- 
ted. • 

174. The colonel will command : 

1. First (or second) platoons — as sJcirmisTiers, 

2. On the right of the sixth c-ompany — take in- 
tervals. 

3. March (or double quick — March). 

175. At the second command, the captains of 
the fifth and sixth companies will prepare to de- 

19 



218. IlSrSTEIICTION FOE SKIEMISHEES. 

ploy the first platoons of their respective compa- 
nies, the sixth on its right, the fifth on its left file. 

176. The captain of the fourth company will 
face it to the right, and the captains of the sev- 
enth and eiglith companies will face their respec- 
tive companies to the left. 

177. At the command marc\ the movement 
will commence. The platoons of the fifth and 
sixth companies will deploy forward ; the right 
guide of tlie sixth will march on the point which 
will he indicated to him by thelieutenant-coloneL 

178. The company which has faced to the 
right, and also the companies which have faced 
to the left, will march straight-forward. The 
fourth company will take an interval of one hun- 
dred paces, counting from the left of the fifth, and 
its chief will deploy its first platoon on its left 
file. The seventh and eight companies will each 
take an interval of one hundred paces, counting 
from the right file of the company, which is im- 
mediately on its right; and the chiefs of these 
companies will afterward deploy their first pla- 
toons on the right file. 

179. The guides who conduct the files on 
which the deployment is made, should be careful 
to direct themselves toward the outer man of the 
neighboring company, already deploy e<l as skir- 
mishers; or if the company has not finished its 
deployment, they will judge carefully the distance 
which may still be required to place all these file« 
in line, and will then march on the point thus 
marked oat. The companies as they arrive on 
the line, will align themselves on those already 
deployed. 



INSTRUCTION FOR SKIRMISHERS. 219 

180. The lieutenant colonel and adjutant will 
follow the deployment, the one on the right, the 
other on the left; the movement concluded, they 
will place themselves near the colonel. The ma- 
jor, not in command of the reserve, will also be 
near the colonel. In case the companies of slcir- 
mishers constitute a part of the battalion reserve, 
the junior major will be placed in command. 

181. The reserves of the com])anies will be es- 
tablished in echelon in the foHowing manner: 
the reserve of tlie sixth companj^ will he placed 
one hundred and fifty paces in rear of tlie right 
of this company; the reserves of the fourth and 
fifth companies, united, opposite the centre of 
their line of skirmishers, and thirty paces in ad- 
vance of the reserve of the sixth company ; the 
reserves of the seventh and eighth companies, 
also united, opposite the centre of their line of 
skirmishers, and tliirty paces farther to the rear 
than the reserve of the sixth company. 

182. The major commanding the companies 
composing the reserve, on receiving an order 
from the colonel to that effect, will march these 
companies thirty paces to the rear, and will then 
ploy them into column by company, at half dis- 
tance ; after which, he will conduct the column to 
the point which shall have been indicated to him. 

183. The colonel will have a general superin- 
tendence of the movement; and when it is fin- 
ished, will move to a point in rear of the line, 
whence his view may best embrace all the parts, 
in order to direct tlieir movements. 

184. If, instead of deploying forward, it be de- 
sired to deploy by the flank, the sixth and fifth 



220 INSTEUCTIOJ?" FOE SKIRMISHERS. l 

companies will be moved to the front ten or 
twelve paces, halted, and deployed by the flank, 
the one on the rii^ht, the other on the left file, by 
the means already indicated. Each of the other 
companies will be marched by the flank; and as 
soon as the last file of the company, next toward 
the direction, shall have taken its interval, it will 
be moved on the line established by the fifth and 
sixth companies, halted and deployed. 

185. In the preceding example, it has been 
supposed that the battalion was in order of bat- 
tle; but if in column, it would be deployed as 
skirmishers by the same commands and according 
to the same principles. 

186. If the deployment is to be made forward^ 
the directing company as soon as it is unmasked, 
will be moved ten or twelve paces in front of the 
head of the column, and will be then deployed on 
the file indicated. Each of the other companies 
will take its interval to the right or left, and de- 
ploy as soon as it is taken. 

187. If the deployment is to be made by the 
flank, the directing company will be moved in the 
same manner to the front, as soon as it is un- 
masked, and will then be halted and deployed by 
the flank on the file indicated. Each of the other 
companies will be marched by the flank, and 
when its interval is taken, will be moved on the 
line, halted and deployed as soon as the company 
next toward the direction shall have finished its 
deployment. 

188. It has been prescribed to place the re- 
serves in echelon, in order that they may, in the 
event of a rally, be able to protect themselves 



Yor. 


1. IN'STRUCTION 


FOIi 


SKIRMISHERS. 


PL. 32. 


a "^ 


'r--. 






B 

3 - 


al ^' '■•.. 








^' 






- -^ 


B 


i^e »^»-- 


— 


L L 


-1 





'^ 


'^"'m 








1 

y 








1 

i 


i 


ilJJJLl 



B B 



IQ!' 



7b 7?^///?/ o/i t7te J/((1f<tlion.—Xo. 193. 



INSTEUCTION FOE SKIEMISHEES. ^21 

without injuring each other ; and the reserves 
of two contiguous companies have been united, 
in order to diminish the number of the echelons, 
and to increase their capacity for resisting cavalry. 

189. The echelons, in the example given, de- 
scend from right to left, but they may, on an in- 
dication from the colonel to that effect, be posted 
on the same principle, so as to descend from left 
to right. 

190. When the color-company is to be de- 
ployed as skirmishers, the color, without its 
guard, will be detached, and remain with the 
battalion reserve. 

0-191. In the deployments of the battalion, one 
or both, of the companies of slcirmisliers^ can 
either constitute a part of the battalion reserve, 
or take their places in the line of skirmishers as 
the colonel may desire ; in the latter case, they 
will take their appointed places previous to the 
commencement of the deployment. 

THE ASSEMBLY. 

192. When the colonel wishes to assemble the 
battalion, he will cause the assemble on the bat- 
talion to be sounded. The companies deployed 
as skirmishers will be assembled on their respec- 
tive reserves, and then proceed to join the bat- 
talion reserve ; they will take places in the bat- 
talion, in their proper order. 

THE EALLT. 

193. The colonel may cause all the various 
19* 



222 IXSTETJCTION FOE SKIRMISHERS. 

,iiovements prescribed for a company, to be exe- 
cuted bj the battalion, and bj the same com- 
mands and the same signals. When he wishes 
to rally the battalion, he will cause the rally on 
the battalion to be sounded, and will so dispose 
his reserve as to protect this movement. 

19 i. The companies deployed as skirmishers 
will be rallied in squares on their respective re- 
serves ; each reserve of two contiguous compan- 
ies will form the first front of the square, throw- 
ing to the rear the sections on the flanks ; the 
skirmishers who arrive first will complete the 
lateral fronts, and the last, the fourth front. The 
officers and sergeants will superintend the rally, 
and as fast as the men arrive, they will form 
them into two ranks, without regard to height, 
and cause them to face outward. 

195. The rally being effected, the commanders 
of squares will profit by any interval of time 
the cavalry may allow for putting them in safety, 
either by marching upon the battalion reserve, 
or by seizing an advantageous position ; to this 
end, each of the squares will be formed into 
column, and march in this order; and if threat- 
ened anew, it will halt, and again form itself into 
square. 

198. As the companies successively arrive near 
the battalion-reserve, each will reform as prompt- 
ly as possible, and, without regard to designation 
or number, take place in the colrcmn next in rear 
of the companies already in it. 

197. The battalion reserve will also form square, 
if itself threatened by cavalry. In this case, the 
companies, in marching toward it, will place 



IXSTEUOTION FOR SKIRMISHEE3. 22S 

i themselves promptly in the sectors without fire, 
and thus march on the squares. 
0-193. If the battalion column has tune to form 
divisions before forming square, the companies of 
skirmishers will take the position prescribed in 
the School of the Battalion. 



END OF mSTRUCTION" FOE SKIRMISHERS, 



224 SWOED MAinJAL, ETO. 



MANUAL OF THE SWORD OR SABRE, 
FOR OFFICERS. 

POSITION OF THE SWOED OE SABEE, TJNDEE AEMS. 

The carry. The gripe is in the right hand, 
which will be supported against the right hip, 
the back of the blade against the shoulder. 

TO SALUTE WITH THE SWOED OE SABEE. 

Three times (or paiLses.') 

One. At the distance of six paces from the 
person to be saluted, raise the sword or sabre 
perpendicularly, the point up, the flat of the 
blade opposite to the right eye, the guard at the 
height of the shoulder, the elbow supported on 
the body. 

Two. Drop the point of the sword or sabre bj 
extending the arm, so that the right hand may 
be brought to the side of the right thigh, and 
remain in that position until the person to whom 
the salute is rendered shall be passed, or shall 
have passed, six paces. 

Three. Raise the sword or sabre smartly, and 
place the back of the blade against the right 
shoulder. 



COLOB SALUTE, ETO. 225 



COLOR-SALUTE. 

In" the ranks, the color-bearer, whether at a 
halt or in march, will always carry the heel of 
the color-lance supported at the right hip, the 
right hand generally placed on the lance at the 
height of the shoulder, to hold it steady. When 
the color has to render honors, the color-bearer 
will salute as follows : 

At the distance of six paces slip the right hand 
along the lance to the height of the eye ; lower 
the lance by straightening the arm to its full ex- 
tent, the heel of the lance remaining at the hip, 
and bring back the lance to the habitual position 
when the person saluted shall be passed, or shall 
have passed, six paces. 



MANUAL 

FOE EELIEVrSTG SENTINELS. 

Arms — Poet. 

One time and one motion. 

Throw the piece diagonally across the body, 
the lock to the front, seize it smartly at the same 
instant with both hands, the right at the handle, 



226 RELIEVING SENTINELS. 

the left at the lower band, the two thumbs point- 
ing toward the muzzle, the barrel sloping upward 
and crossing opposite the point of the left shoul- 
der, the butt proportionally lowered. The palm 
of the right hand will be above, and that of the 
left under the piece, the nails of both hands next 
to the body, to which the elbows will be closed. 

Shoulder — Arms. 

One time and two motions » 

{First motion.) Bring the piece smartly to the 
right shoulder, placing the right hand as in the 
position of shoulder arms, slip the left hand to 
the height of the shoulder, the fingers extended. 

{Second motion.) Drop the left hand smartly 
by the side. 



Being on parade and at order arms, if it 
be wished to give the men rest, the command 
will be : 

Parade — Kest. 

At the command rest, turn the piece on the 
heel of the butt, the barrel to the left, the muzzle 
in froDt of the centre of the body ; seize it at the 
same time with the left hand just above, and with 
the right at the upper band ; carry the right foot 
six inches to the rear, the left knee slightly bent. 



INSTBUCTION FOE THE DEUM-MAJOE. 227 

INSTRUCTION 

FOE THE DEUM-MAJOE (OE PEINCIPAL MTJSICIAN.) 

The posts of the field music and band have 
been given, Title I, for the order in battle. 

In column in manoeuvre, the field music and 
band will march abreast with the left centre com- 
pany, and on the side opposite the guide, unless 
otherwise specified in the manoeuvre. 

In column in route, as well as in the passage of 
defiles to the front or in retreat, they will march 
at the head of their respective battalions. 

BEATS OP THE DRUM. AND SOUNDS OF 
THE BUGIiE. 

General calls on the drum. 

The beats of the drum for infantry, independent 
of mere police calls, are fixed at fifteen, 

1. The general. 

2. Th£ assembly, 

3. To the color. 

4. The long roll. 

5. Common time (90 steps to the minute). 

6. Quick time. 

7. Double quick time. 

8. The rexeille, 

9. The troop. 

10. The retreat. 

11. The tattoo. 

12. To recall detachments. 



m CALLS OW SKITM. 

13. Dj^ummer'^s call. 

14. Come for orders. 
First sergeant's call. 
Sergeant's call. 
Corporal's call. 

15. The roll (to cease firing.) 



Beats on the drum for skirmishers. 

These beats are to be used onlj when the bugle 
gannot be obtained, as is prescribed in the in> 
siructions for skirmishers, No. 10. 

1. Doiible quick time, 

2. The run. 

8. Deploy as sTcirmishers. 

4. Forward. 

5. In retreat. 

6. Halt. 

Y. By the right flarik. 

8. By the leftflanlc, 

9. Commence firing. 

10. Cease firing. 

11. Change direction to the right. 

12. Change direction to the left, 

13. Lie down, 

14. Rise up. 

15. Rally hy fours, 

16. Rally by sections. 
IT. Rally lyy platoons. 

18. Rally upon the reserve, 

19. Rally upon the battalion, 

20. Assemble on the battalion. 



CALLS OlS BUGLE. 229 

General calls on the bugle. 

1. Attention. 

2. Signal of execution (to be given by the 
general commanding more than one brigade of 
the line). 

3. the general, 

4. The assembly, 

5. To the color, 

6. The recall 

7. Quick time. 

8. Double quich tim^, 

9. The charge. 

10. The reveille, 

11. Retreat, 

12. Tattoo, 

13. To extinguish lights. 

14. Assembly of the bugles, 

15. Assembly of the guard. 

16. Orders for orderly sergeants, 

17. For officers to take their places in line after 
firing. 

18. The disperse, 

19. Offi/iers call, 

20. Breakfast call, 

21. Dinner call, 

22. Siclc call, 

23. Fatigue call, 

24. Church call, 

25. Drill call, 

26. School call. 
20 



230 CALLS ON BUGLE. 

Calls on the bugle for skirmishers, 

1. Fix bayonet, 

2. Unfix bayonet, 

3. Quich time. 

4. Double quick time, 

5. The run. 

6. Deploy as sMrmishers. 

7. Forward. 

8. In retreat. 

9. Ealt. 

10. By the right flanJc. 

11. By the left flank. 

12. Commence firing, 

13. Cease firing. 

14. Change direction to the right, 

15. Change direction to the lefU 

16. Lie down. 

17. Rise up. 

18. Rally by fours. 

19. Bally by sections, 

20. Bally by platoons. 

21. Bally on the reserve, 

22. Bally on the battalion. 

23. Assemble on the battalion, 

KoTK. — When the whole of the troops, in the 
same camp or garrison, are to depart, the general^ 
the a^embly^ and to the color ^ will be beaten or 
sounded, at the proper intervals, in the order 
here mentioned. At the first, the troops will 
prepare for the movement ; at the second, they 
will form by company, and at the third unite by 
battalion. 



SIGNALS OF DRUM-MAJOR. 231 

Signals of the dram-major for the principal beats 
and sounds. 



1. The general. Extend the right arm, seize 
the staff in the middle, and raise the head of the 
staff to the height of the neck. 

2. The assemhly. Extend the right arm, raise 
the staff ahout a foot from the ground, and place 
the thumb upon its head. 

3. To the color. Eaise the arm, and turn the 
wrist inward so as to make the stftff cross hori- 
zontally in front of the body, at the height of the 
neck. 

4. The long roll. Place the staff upon the 
right shoulder, the ferrule to the rear. 

5. Common time. Raise the staff perpendicu- 
larly, the ferrule upward, the right arm extend- 
ed, and at the height of the shoulder. 

6. QuicJc time. Raise the staff, the right arm 
extended, the palm of the hand turned to the 
front, the liead of the staff higher than the right 
shoulder, the ferrule at the height and in front of, 
the sword hilt. 

7. Double quick time. Point the staff directly 
forward, the ferrule in advance, the right fore- 
arm extended, and indicate the rapidity of thd 
gait by shaking the riglit hand. 

8. The reveille. Take the staff in the left hand, 
and place the thumb upon its head, the hand at 
the height of the left shoulder. 

9. The retreat. Pass the staff crosswise be- 
hind the back. 

10. Church call. Place the head of the staff 
upon the right shoulder. 



232 SIGNALS OF DEUM-MAJOE. 

11. The roll (to cease firing). Extend the right 
arm, and shake the arm and staff sharply. 

Signals for the manoeuvres of the field music and 
band. 

1. To march hy the right flanTc, Seize the 
staff in the middle, and extend the arm to the 
right. 

2. To march ly the left flanTc. Make the same 
signal, extending the arm to the left. 

3. To diminish front. Let the ferrule of the 
staff fall into the left hand, held at the height of 
the eyes. 

4. To increase front. Let the head of the staff 
fall into the left hand, held at the height of the 
eyes. 

5. To change direction. Turn half around tow- 
ard the line, and indicate by a movement of the 
staff, to which side the change is to be made. 

6. To ohllque to the right. Extend the right 
arm at the li eight of the shoulder, holding the 
staff in a slanting position, and seize the ferrule 
with the left hand at the height of the hip. 

7. To oMiqiie to the left. Make the contrary 
signal, the head of the staff, always indicating the 
side toward which the oblique is to be made. 

^ To ground drums, &c. 

1. To put up drumsticlcs. Seize the staff 
under the head, raise it as high as the eyes, ex- 
tending the arm forward. 

2. To unsling drums. Place the head of the 
staff a^^ainst the breast. 



SIGNALS OF DEUM-MAJOE. 238 

3. To ground drums. Same signal as for put- 
ting up drumsticks. 

4. To take up drums. Same signal as for 
grounding drums. 

5. To sling drums. Same signal as for un- 
filinging. 

6. To take drumsticks. Same signal as for 
putting up drumsticks. 

20* 



BEATS OF THE DRPI. 



Explanation of the Signs for the Drum. 

t 



A TAP. 



A FLAM 



ROLLS 



r r r r r 

O.....JJJJJ 

3 4 5 7 9 

STROKES 



A DRAG. 



COMMON TIME. 

90=J-jfe-2t or 90 Steps. 

to a minute. 
TIME FOR THE RETREAT. 

llO-J- fe: -0- or 110 Steps. 

to a minute. 
QUICK TIME. 

1 ^Jfe 

S-^ or 110 Steps. 



110-_ 



o o p P 



to a minute. 
DOUBLE QUICK TIME. 

140-J-^g-2- or 140 Steps, 

to a minute. 
TIME FOR THE TROOP. 



80: 



=J-; 



J^ or 30 Bars, 
to a minute. 



EXPLANATION, 



235 



Iiength and Proportion of Notes and Bests. 

Common- Time. 



Semibreve, 

equal 
to 2 Minims, 

or 4 Crotchets, 



i 



-- — (5> G- 



2 steps to a bar, & 
90 to a minute. 



Rests. 



-# — #— # — #- 



t:=c 



-z5=t?z5i 



or 8 Quavers, 



f00 00 9 - — ^ 7- 



or 16 Semiquavers 



m 



1=^ 



A Dotted Minim, , jJLT O " 



equal 
to 3 Crotchets, 



i^ 



^ . ^ T Time for thi 

1? 1 TKKAT. 



THE RB- 



L ^ -^ #—4- 2 Steps to 



a bar, & 



or 6 



-#-#- 0-0—0 — i 



Quavers. p#-#- 0-0—0 — #-+ HO to a minute. 



A Dotted Crotchet 

equal ~^ 

to 3 Quavers, 



lii=!^ 



Time for thb 
Troop, &c. 



-# 0- 

-t^ ?^ ^ 



1 step to a bar, & 



23(J GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM, 

or 6 Semiquavers. 



^fiFS=^=P^ 



to a minate. 



2 Dotted Crotchets, 
equal 



: JL-iL -^» 0.^__ : QmcK Time. 

'^y ^ \- I • ' 2 steps to a bar, 



to 6 Quarerf. — ^-^_^ ^_^_^. 



A Minim, 

equal 
to 2 Crotchets, 



i 



v ^ — g ^ 



110 to a minute. 



Double Quick 
TmB. 



+— + 



2 steps to a bar, & 



or 4 Quavers, p — ^ — p — p I 140 to a minute. 



80:zJ 



Greneral Calls on the Drum. 

1. The General, 
t d t t t t 



"f^ 


-^- 


-^- 


-^ 


-#- 


_^- 


.#_^_^_- 


bsjiit^ 


. 1 . 


=£3 


L-U- 






L,. ;^i 



D. C. 



*--n-^- 



3=*=p: 



fzt:?: 



-f-?-?- 



GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM. 



237 



80 = J. 



^^ 



2. The Assembly, 

ffff rffff 



•^*3=it:?z2it:^- 



^^^^^V-V-^^ — V=^?— y^— t^iv- 



frit 



% 



f f f f f 



f f f f f 



D.C. 



^-4=-P^ 






tUz^ 



-v-^y- 



80-J. 
Fife, 



Drum. 



3. To the Color. 



^ 



^„ ^_#_ 



#— E-^ 



i 



f 1 1 1 1 t 



f 1 1 f 



jTwnr.zw:^- 







i 



f f f 



f=T^ 



#=^ 



:ta: 



itt 



f=W=¥^ 



v-v-v- 



4. 7'Ae /ono- Roll 



238 



GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM. 



90 = ^ 



5. Common Time. 
f f f f 



■W ~^ r— E r-T— r— t r — , — 



^ 



f D. C. 



A=^— ^-y^=^ 



^=f~-^ 



no -J 



i 



6. Quick Time. 

f f f f f f r 



ifea:: 



VH i^- 






« *-^ 



-V--*- 



i 



zw=m=^- 



-*—/»- 



-^_^: 



ife 



f D. C. 



zjfrnfr. 



140- J 



=i 



7. Double quick Tim£. 
f f f f f f 



4~^-^- 



-^-?' 



:^_^_: 



GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM. 289 

fff r f ffff 



qizi:^_:^_-y— ^_y— /giryi:^ — ^r* — ^ 



i 



4=4= 



_^_ 



Ig^l 



8. 2'Ae Reveille. 



140 -j 
Fife. 

Drum. 



ii^ 



i 



t r r r r r t 



f -^--^-r-T -?-f - ' -^- " p-'^-r 



3 7 



i 



--^ — h 



_^_ 



■g 



;§f^ 



r r r r r r r 






-^— > 



S 



^— ^ 



^ — ^- 



7 7 7 



7 7 7 



3 7 



_^ ^_ 



iftfe 



^ 



=fc?: 



n 



r r r r 









3 7 



3 7 7 7 



240 



GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM. 



f=^. 



m 



^3igp3^}p 



i 



1 — r 



-f-?-?- 



7 7 7 

60:: J Slow Scotch. 



^ggg^i 




120^^ Austrian. 






^—ft—0^T 



^=F=^ 



fct 



d d d 



-#-T- 



d d d d 



&c. 



=^^=?= 



GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM- 



241 



140 n j Hessiau 




r t r t r r r 



Drum. h^^_^_^^^ 



160- j Quick Scotch, 

=1 



l-g—^^-rr~^ ^ ^ ^ — I — 



's=^ 



&c, 



I 



m -^-^- 



'77 7 7 

21 D. C. the first part of the Rereille. 



242 



GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM. 



9. The Troop. 



Fife. 



Dkum. 



80;:J. 



"if 



^^EE 



m 



i 



^ 



:^_z^S= 



rF"= 



=|;t 



i*Et= 



^ 



t f d t 



<fec. 



m 



t t ft 



.^_^_^: 



-I — i I — 



^ 






LP=P-?- 



10. TAe Ee^reaf. 



Fife. 



Drum, 




GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM. 



243 



"tf 



m^^ 



-^ — ^ 



SiiS 



1^ 



d t t d t t 



-•-5?-^- 



P=[= 



_^ — ^_::_^ — tf- 






_^-p. 



^^ ^^^ Mm _ 



i 



d t t d 



t d t t 



# — ^ _^- _^._5-l:a : ■ ^ -g-_^ — « 



=^=±4 



-p~i r 



_._^_,^_P^^^_^^P____ 



:EF:^ 



i 

It? 



d t t d t t d t 






fi S_^-#_ 



j— E|— r— tf — as-^ T — r#-^ ^T 



I 



I 



— I— K? 

-HI 0- 



^^ 



x: 



d t t d t t d t t d 



---T;ii:pz±p=zp:iti:i± r"r-r Et=i 



244 



GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM. 



/VV w 



^'-^ 



m 



121^ 



80 = J 
Fife. 

Drum. 



11. The Tattoo 



z±Sr 



:S^^[^ 



i 



d f t d t d r f 



-^-^-^ 



J^-^- 



fm^. 



J L L ; 



-v-^ 



^— ^ 



-^^ 






-4*-- 



Fine, 
f 



# ^- 



:t=5^^:^=5z:f 



=t 



110 ^ J Quick time. 



I 



ft: 



S 



1 



After the quick time begin the Doubling. 



GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM. 245 

90 — ^ Common time. 



^ 



I 



^t-^ 



60 = J Dutch. 



After this repeat the doubling. 



I 



I 



S=3Z 



140= J Double quick time. 



$i 



/W /W 



^?5= 



^IS 



P 



1 



s= 



After the three Rolls repeat doubling to the Fine. 

80 = J 12. To Recall Detachments. 

d t d t t 



te^"^^ie£i^ 



W 



I 



4 

t d t t t 



^^^ 






_i f I 



4 21* 



■-^/^ 



246 GENERAL CALLS ON DRUM. 

13. Drummer's Call, 




i 



rffrffrffrtrt 



n^r:^z^r=:w=W=zw=Mi 



V-^- 



-?=?- 



V—¥—^/-^—^-V- 



FlRST 

Sbrgkants. 



14. Come for Orders. 



-aUt^^- 



--^U=x: 



WZIW 



l^'- 



times 
over. 



Sergeants. 



Corporals. 



i 



^ 



1^ 



3 times 
over. 



L# — ^_qi=?: 



- 3 times 
I over. 



i 



15. The Roll {to cease firing.) 



i^Szz^: 



160- j 



BEATS ON DRUM FOR SKIRMISHERS. 

Beats on the Drum for Skirmishers. 
1. Double Quick Time. 

(Same as No. 7 in General Calls on the Drum.) 

2. The Run. 

f f f f r 



247 



$ 



■i-f-± 



;^-f 



-P-?-T"^-?- 



-^-^ 



3. Deploy as Skirmishers. 



^>— le— ^ ^— f— ^-^j-^— ^g— g— -- 



-^—t^- 



_^_^_ 



_.L^_^_ 



i 



E^^ 



-^ — ^__ifi — ^ — ^ — ^_: : _* — ^ 



ibzzipizzt: 



=^::::p: 



76 z: J 



4 4 

4. Forward. 



i 



-?-^- 



^zzrz^zif 



?-?-M^ 



4 
f f 



1 



-^— ^-5- 






248 BEATS ON DRUM FOR SKIRMISHERS. 

5. In Retreat 



5-J 



f f f 



f f f 



^^ 



=i=t==±t 



ig=?^^' -P=?=g -f-p Hg=)fcf-^g^^ 



f f f 



T- n- 



f f f 



-t-prt 



■^-"^- - ^ y ^ y -^r;?i >_y— ^,y_^_y; 



t= 



120^ J 



6. Ha/f. 

f f f f 



--1 — I — i— 



-;^— >^ 



- ^ ^ r - 

-K — I , ^ 



^^'^—Z- 



J I L_ 



-k-HA 



F~~^ P 



i 



T~^ p- 



-^-f- 



-f.-r-± 



^V-P=TJ=P=9=)==t=t 



^?=?= 



ISO -J 



i 



7. By the right flank. 



fffff fffff 



ZS=^—^ 



't±t^ 



ipzcf 



#_J_^_2- 



-^ — ^- 



--f- 7 r 7 






;f^ 



=t==?= 



_^_^_e_ 



=£=^ 



:ta 





BEATS ON 

f 


DRUM FOR 
f f f 


SKIRMISHERS. 249 
f f f f 


1 5 






hA 


!».>»•* 


^ f ^ 


«__. 


-t^-^-^—f- 


^ ' V 7 




[ V^V 1 


'[> i 


'J 


1 1 \J 




' 


1 \f \ 







f f f 



II 



-1 1 — . — L \ 1_ \ 1_. 



-h 



-?-^-?- 



130 = J 



f 



8. By the left flank. 

frf frf frf f 



#-^- 



=f=P 



«-^-^ 



80=^ 



i 



9. Commence firing, 
f f f f f f f f 



f f 



^f-f- 



^-p=t^=P=t^=t 



:^_^_ 



.^^^^=rC 



i 



H*-^ 



-P-f- 



t 



i 



10. Cease firing. 
t t d t 



■:B-^^?-!'- 



-4- 



-^ 



r^f- 



-^^-?- 



-?*-?-''- 



S^ 



-*-ft--- 



=?-?- 



250 BEATS ON DRUM FOR SKIRMISHERS. 

11. Change direction to the right. 



120 -J 




f f f 






^:^Sm^: 



t-lf±. 



lU-^. 



12, Change direction to the left. 



m 



V- 



f=5::?5::?--i:''5;;-J±f5:-^55±: 



fi=f:=tg5zic=tf 



1 



80-^. 



i 



13. Lie down. 
r f f f 



a -^ -y^ l^—^—fi- --^-y-^- ;-^35:5 



H- 



t 



:,^ _y_y_: -_^ — g-^#- -^-y-^ --^ -?-?- 



4 4 

f f f r f 



r-9 1 






l\ 


y j» ^ >• 


m a ^ 


y* » 


fi >* y» %\ 


fm "i ' ' 




j V 1 


' ~^ \1T 


^W-^ — ' 


- 1 1 i__ 

A 


A 


1 >B 



120 ri J 



14. Rise up. 

r f f f r t t t 






fiSl 



A5f4 



=[= 



>-^- 



y-r-r 



120 = ; 



BEATS ON DRUM FOR SKIRMISHERS. 251 

15. Rally hy fours 



±z^ 



f-?-r-?- 



ztdSz 



-V- 



it:: 



-f-^-?- 



^- 



.__^ ^ 1 L_ 



120 = 



16. Roily hy sections. 

r fff rr fff 



i^ 






120 = J 



I 



17. Rally by platoons, 
fff rff fff 



2^=^ 



'z5£F^-^izfzt 



y__^- 



-^— /— V- 






v—/—/- 



f f 



^igi^l 



gt—MZ Z^n^it _^7 



-V / /- 



■v—v—^/ — >_±-.^ 



80 z:^ 



18. Rally upon the Reserve. 



$^ 



ffff rffff 



-« 0- 



/-?-?- 



252 BEATS ON DRUM FOR SKIRMISHERS, 
ffffff rffffff 



Ss 



^ 



f 



5s=?=pit 



-; , 1 I i 1 J 1 i 1 1 



-y-/-W-/ 



80 z:^ 



19. Rally upon the Battalion. 

f t t t t t f t t f 




)-J. 



m 



20. Assemble on the Bataillon, 

r ffffff 



±1 



P P p » - lacqr—^—^- 



i 



w=^- 



GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 



253 



Explanation of the Signs for the Bugle. 

Movement of the Metronome, 



76-^ -1 



- — or 76 steps to the minute. 



80 r^. 



■ — or 80 "bars to the minute. 



100 -^•~ /rs o — or 100 steps to the minute 



120 — j — ^5"^ ~ ^^ ^20 steps to the minute. 
Silenee ^ — Demi-silence •^ 

General Calls on the Bugla 
1, Attention. 



120 =j Allegro. 



i 



t^-^ 






mtfd-t 



_J fL_ 



-^-^0-0- 



254 GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 



Allegro . 



2. Signal of Execution. 



-± 



-^ # # 0- 



^ 



±± 



$ 



-t-^-t: 



-^-. — «- 



^ 



3. The General. 



130 1=^ Presto. 



i 



^ 



4:t±p 



:t=t' 



0-0 0—0-0 



r^^-^-^^ — #-#-#- 



ic^ 




AndantG. 



'0-0-0-e-0-0- •^0-0-^0'0' t^ 

4. TAs Assembly, 



$ 



^*-H H 1 ! h- 



3^ 



_^___«_ 



r^2_ 



GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 255 



i 



_#_^_^_#_^: 



rS 1 


r \ 1 


m o 


r-(2- — r 


jL £7 m »-^ a 


P '\ » 


\ ^ \ - 


^ 


frT) i ) i • r 


r_ J ^. 


' h 


' V 


vW ' ' ; ! 


— ^ 9 















^ 



-*-^-^-l«- 



:tr2z 



j_:-_,(2_>*- 



5, 2'o ^/zc Co/or. 



80— J Andante. 



ny — r ^""^ - 1 


<5 


r^— ^^-^^ 


o 


/L *> ^ \ ^' p 


1 ^ 


i L_' i 


1 ^ - 


frs J 1 r ^^ 






1 1 


vm; ' ' ' 1 














' 



^ 



S3: 



r ? \: 



#-— «- 



-# — 0-a—a- 



-(2-^- 



i 



v=^— ^- 



-^'^^^-^-- 



-^-i ^ ! -^ 



-^ a~0-a- -n 



- Q ^,-£1. 



^^ 



-^-V-^.- 



D.C. 



80 z;^ Andante. 



6. The Recall 



H ! \ i- 



^^^-<» e — 



I i i 



256 



GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 



-4—i—+- 



S d S { ii-9-^ 



-^ — ~ii "-w-^i^ 



Q c- 



110^ J AUe^o. 



7. Quick Time, 




^165z:j Allegro. 



8. Double quick Time, 



i^^^^EHgl 



» «3l_ LI ^ 



H*=^^- 



_^_«_ 



g^Sfeg 



GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 



257 






:^teE^St 



^ 



s 



^:ii= 



^Se^^iSaE^Hgefj^i 



if 




-U' I - It 1 Ll 



115 = J Allegro 



9. 2'Ae C/iargc. 



S 



fc*.Hrd4 



W 



^g'-i p;^^— ^ — ^___^i|-^ — ij — 1^ — '.0. 



dtr: 



i 



^ 



^ ^ 



SeS 



■)'' I i ^ ^ 



-^/^ — 1 — « — # — — #-* — #■ 



5=^=5 



S^ 



-# # — a- 



fl ^- 



-^ ^ 






^ ^fc--j^a5 jB^ 



^ 



22* 



m 



^ 



MSB 



GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 



^^ 



^fi--^ 



¥-, — ^ ^ 



^ 



0- 



$ 



D.C. 



=^=F^ 



+=!*-—,•- 



h~[~0- 



10. 2'he Reveille, 



nO = J Allegro. 



I 



f=^ 



-^-P-^ 



^ 



-!«-J-A- 



^M CJ - Li — ^ 



^ 



-M * — ^ 



^^^^^^^ 



m 



-4-^-*- 



D. C. 



1 



-^«-»«i- 



7©-;:: J Andante. 



11. Retreat. 



^^m 



f 



GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 



259 



$ 



-y— e/- 



-&■ . -^ -e- -&• 



12. Tattoo. 
112- J AUegro. 

* /7\ /^ /^ 



T^IZ 



-p — ^^ 



_^_i — ^ — ^ 



l-tF 



^1 



3GI1I 



-*J — 1— *4. 



tftrt 



irt 



-I*— H 



rP-' 



i:-i-^-±f^ 



W=:W^ 



.i/^j gj.-^. 






^icT-its- 



-^Hi 



i 



-i ^ / 1— ^-i -- ^ ^-1— r— 



^-^ 



i 
i 



-^-^— ^=1 



-i — [^ -f^ — I — « — h- -f 



.^_5_L. 



=i^=i=F= 



±t 



■La-^ 



-i — ^— v^- 






rf^-'--^ 



260 GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 



i 



^±E^ 



'T'M-^- 



W- 



13. To extinguish Lights, 
76 = J Allege. 



I 



4-f- 



±3tirtiti=lr:c:i 



m 



|;^is^?ff=r^Tt^ 



i 



-1 1 ! 1 1 



0—4^0- 4 ^ I I 1 ^ 



14. Assembly of the Buglers. 

160 = J Presto. 




C ^ l» 



•^H — ^ 



^ 



15. Assembly of the Guard, 

112= J AUegro. 



i^ 



5=fT^ 






GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 



261 



m 



^ 



■ ^-0-a-f-\ 



M. gL 



art 



=?=+ 



m 



^E^^ 



^ ^- 



72i::j Allegro. 



16. Orders for Orderly Sergeants. 



$ 



^ 



fcS^^fi^ 



:e=a:!!=t=:: 



L^j-^t^iJ-^&^J 



i 



m 



-#»-f- 



17. For Officers to take their places in line after 
firing. 

108 -J Allegro. ^^ 



i=g= 



4-^^- 



-^ 



120 = J AUegro. 



18. The Disperse. 



^ 



-tf— - 



^"^-'^l- 


.._^ ^..-f-J^ 


bj— ^-M- 


b|t:^J_tirjd 


: -' « 


-^— 1,^ — 



262 GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 



-_a=^ 



^eE3^5S? 



E^s 



17+: 



^ V 



152;: J Allegro. 



19. Officer^ Call 




:^.^.^L^.:ri^^ 



4 ! H i 



^^^F^ 



i 



f-^r^::EE^ 



_^_^. 



^A — ^. 



d~'L 



138 -j Allegro. 



i 



20. Breakfast Call 



^ — ^=Ff 



-^ — ^— ^ 



-j«-«^ 



-^^• 



- ^«j« i ^L . ^ 



5=2: 



W^ 



;##•- 



^ 



'e^^±^ 



110 -J Allegro 



f^g: 



P y ^4 



r+T-^ - 



-|2- 



^is" 



21. Dinner Call i-il^-ij 




GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 263 

3 S 




22. Sick Call 



110^ J AUegro. 



- g^"JV 



±± 



g 



1^3: 



m 



$ 



^SS^assESe 



1 



e 



-a 0- 



92 z: J Allegro. 



23. Fatigue Call 



i 



=t 



=^^=±^ 



H*^=^ 



1^^^ 



f-h*=-#- 



iS 



^^ ^^^Uf^t^L^jLji 



$ 



^ 



GENERAL CALLS ON BUGLE. 

24. Church Call 



80 -^ Andante. 



E333Ea33; 



i 



i 



^^ 



i^ 



25. Drill Call 



76—^ Maestoso. 



a 



_^.^- 



=tS: 



i 



3SeE3S 



:^=?M-^«- 






i 



^ 



miiir 



;ti: 



:^^ztii^-:ttt 



Hs:^q 



.^r ^ 



=^ 



-w--t 



—^ : 



^^n 



=^^^^ 



^ 



BUGLE CALLS FOR SKIRMISHERS. 265 



i 



26. School Call. 



110 = J AUegro. 




>« « ^ 1' 






^ r , - 




=^=^=PT 


, > II 


lE^J=t=t 


— i : 1 1— 


T^^ 



Calls on the Bugle for Skirmishers. 
1. Fix Bayonet. 



i 



fc± 



m 



4-*- 



i 



r^ Andante. 



2. U?2/?:r Bayonet. 



$ 



■^ — ' HI 1 F 1 Of 1 F 1 mi 



23 



266 BUGLE CALLS FOR SKIRMISHERS. 



#=^— «- 



:T==r 



^ osaja— 



ili^ii^iE 



3. Quick Time. 
(Music the same as No. 7 in General Calls on the Bugle. "i 



165 = J AUegro. 



4. Double Quick Time, 




^ 



-#-#-■ 



:^i 4--fl^^^ 




&-00 -\-0- — p-g-^f^ a I 0-00-0-0-0 -\ 



:££?:? 






:^=P 



1 



5. Tke Run. 



160= j Presto. 



i 



Er-r-r-r^tf=i!_-^ig^ 



VP^-i/-^^^- 



■i — k^ 



BUGLE CALLS FOR SKIRMISHERS. 267 



^fgms 






-f^^-F^ 



^-F-F^=^F^— ^-^— ^^— ^-^— ^-F.^ 
~ -h— I- ■ 






-1 — i^-( — i^-L-l — [^--h:::^- 



6. Deploy as Skirmishers. 

llO-j Allegro. 



rz^_^_^_[: 



.^_^_^_ 



fcLd 



-^-_^__^_:d-'=i=l: 



0-0—0- 



^—fi—^ 



-^ ^ ^ H— h 



-^—^—^ 



t-f ^ 



160^ J Presto. 



7. Forward. 



^i:^3E^^ 



^-0—^ 



ft — ^_ 



-^ — ^- 



i 



3;=5E3— i^v; 



-^ — ^ — — 0— 



■i tf 1 \ U- 



+— -?- 



Efcd-^ 


_^4r^ :^ j— ^t=^.4|: 


#-*-— t 





268 BUGLE CALLS FOR SKIRMISHERS. 

8. Li Retreat. 



*!Q — ^ Allegro. 



"TTT7T 




-^-/^«- 


_^.^ 


[-'-rn 


-fr)^'-^-'^- 


_-^_!_- 


-~ 1 ; 


-1 


;E^-t; 


L^-^-^-w-- 


l— i J 



-i^ 



m 



_^_^^. 



-tf_tfi^ 



^ 



fi-fi- 



9. Halt. 
1£0-J Presto. 



i 



^_^_^_ I ^-^ 1. 



:t=t 



160 r= J Presto. 



10. By the right flank. 



i 



^- g=g- 



-^ ^- 



-H —0 *- 



-ff ^_ 






rzs r:s r?\ 



m 



£UGLE CALLS FOR SKIRMISHERS. 



269 



160- J Presto. 



11. By the left flank. 




Svl 



;=P-^-^- 



-8— g- tf — 1 — K-}- a—c— \ — h^h-^ — 0-0 — 0- 



3^5^^ 






-^L_|S_ 



^ 



160 :i J Presto. 



12. Commence firing. 



i 



_^_^_ 



(«— ^ 



-H 1 1 1--, 1— I 'r 

— ^ tf — 



60 — J Maestoso. 



13. Cease firing. 



13^ 



Wi 



fl-^^^ft_ 



S: 






14. Change direction to the right, 

110 -J Allegro. 



*= 



01,0 <?- 



-^— ~l 



OP,^' 



270 BUGLE CALLS FOR SKIRMISHERS. 



15. Change direction to the left. 

110 = j Allegro. 



fc^ 



IM^-ft. 



0,0 a — — \ 



i 



1 



f±£ 



-\ 



-\ — \ — #- 



-0- 



50 nj Moderate. 



16. Lie down. 



m 



4-^ 



•^ — ^*— ^ 



^ 



50 = J Moderato. 



17. Rise up. 




-0-' 



ISOrJ Allegro. 



18. Rally by fours. 



i 



— pt j ^r__. :_: — 4l ^a 



i 



#^-^ 0-V 



1^ 



BUGLE CALLS FOR SKIRMISHERS, 271 

19. Rally by sections. 



130 r:j. Allegro. 



^'^^^ 



■-f — ?- 



n '^ 


tf 


/r\ 




U 'o « • 


^ * 1 




^Av|~^^-J — ^- 


-^•-i— ^ 




. vCV)4 5^^ ^ 




LS3 — * 1 





20. Rally by platoons. 



130 = J Allegro. 



i 



± 



P^^E^S^ 



^— ir^ 



S 




21. jRaZ/z/ ttpon ?Ae Reserve. 

76 = J Andante. 



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272 BUGLE CALLS FOR SKIRMISHERS. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



TOL. L 



TITLE I. 

FORMATION OP INTANTBT IN OEDEE OP BATTLH. 

Akticlb I 

PAGE. 

Formation of line of battle composed of several brigades ... 9 

Formation in line of battle of a brigade 10 

Formation in line of battle of a regiment 10 

Position of companies of skirmisiiers 11 

Manner of forming company in two ranks 12 

Posts of company officers, sergeants, and corporals 12 

Posts of field officers and regimental staff 14 

Posts of field music and band 15 

Color guards 15 

General guides 16 

Article II. 

Instruction of the battalion It 

Instruction of officers 19 

Instruction of sergeants 20 

Instruction of corporals 20 

Commands 21 

TITLE IL 

SCHOOL OP THE 80LDIEK. 

PAKT FIRST. 

General rules and division of the School of the Soldier 22 

Lesson I. 

Position of a soldier % 

Remarks on position of a soldier. 25 

Eyes right, left, front S* 

Best, attention 29 



2T4: CONTENTS. 

Lesson II. 

Pacing* 29 

Lesson IIL 

Principles of tlie direct step— common time 80 

Quick time 83 

Lesson IY. 

Principles of the double quick step 32 

PART SECOND. 

General rules 35 

Lesson L 

Principles of shouldered arms .'. .-:•.-«*, %i-. ..... 35 

Lesson II. 

Manual of arms 36 

Support arms, Eest, at support arms 88 

Shoulder arms, from support arms 39 

Present arms.. 39 

Shoulder arms from present arms 40 

Order arms 40 

Position of order arms 41 

Shoulder arms from order arms 42 

Load in nine times from shoulder 43 

Keady 46 

Aim 4T 

Fire 48 

Load from position of aim 48 

Bhoulder arms from position of aim 48 

Kecover arms 49 

Shoulder arms from position of loading 49 

Load in eight times 50 

fix l)ayonet 50 

houlder arms from position of fix bayonet 51 

Charge bayonet 61 

Shoulder arms from position of charge bayonet 52 

Trail arms. . ; 52 

Shoulder arms from position of trail arms 53 

Unfix bayonet 63 

Shoulder arms from position of unfix bayonet 54 

Secure arms 54 

Shoulder arms from position of secure arms 55 

Bight shoulder shift arms from position of shoulder arms. . 55 

Bhoulder arms from position of right shoulder shift arms. . 56 

Eight shoulder shift arms from position of support arms... 66 

Stipport arms from position of right shoulder shift arm* ... 5T 



CONTENTS. 



275 



PAGE. 

^rms at will 57 

Ground arms 58 

Eaise arms , 58 

Inspection of arms 69 

Spring rammers 60 

To mark time. 61 

To change step 62 

To march backward 62 

Lesson III^ 

To load in four times r>. 63 

Toloadatwill 64 

Lesson IY. 

The direct fire 65 

Cease firing 65 

Position of two ranks in oblique fire to the right 66 

Position of two ranks in oblique fire to the left 66 

To fire by file 6T 

To fire by rank 68 

Lesson Y. 

To fire and load standing 69 

To fire and load lying 71 

Lesson VI. 

Bayonet exercise 72 

Guard against infantry 72 

Guard against cavalry 78 

PART THIPwD. 
Lesson I. 

Alignments 74 

Right or left dre&s, front. 75 

Right or left backward dress, front 76 

Lesson II. 

To march to the front 77 

Right or left oblique 79 

To face about in marching 81 

To face ab<5ut and halt 82 

To march backward 82 

Lesson III. 

To march by the flank 83 

To change by file to left or right 85 

To face by right or left flank in marching 85 

To face by right or left flank and halt 86 

To march by flank in double quick time 87 



2T6 CONTENTS. 

PAoa. 

Lessox IY. 

General principles of wheeling 83 

Right or left wheel from a halt 89 

Eemarks on the principles of the wheel from a halt 90 

Wheeling in marching on a movable pivot 91 

Eight or left wheel when marching 91 

Turning or changing directions to the side of the guide 93 

"Wheeling and changing direction to the side of the guide 

in double quick time 98 

Lesson Y. 

Long marches in double quick time, and the run 94 

To stack arms 95 

To break ranks 97 

To resume arms 97 

TITLE III. 

SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

Q-eneral rules and divisions of the School of the company. . . 99 
In each rank count twos 101 

LESSON FIRST. 
Article I. 

To open ranks 102 

Article IL 

Alignment in open ranks 104 

Article III. 

Manual of arms 106 

Article IY. 

To close ranks 10& 

Article Y. 

Alignments and manual of arms in closed ranks 107 

In place, rest 108 

LESSON SECOND. 
Article I. 

To load in four times and at will 109 

Article II. 

To fire by company 110 

Article III. 
To fire by file Ill 



CONTENTS. 277 

PAGE. 

Article IY. 

To fire by rank Ill 

Aeticle Y. 
To fire by the rear rank 113 

LESSON THIRD. 
Article I. 

To advance in line of battle 116 

Article II. 
To halt the company marching in line of battle, and to 
align it 119 

Article III. 

Oblique march in line of battle 120 

Article IY. 
To mark time, to march in double quick time, and the back 
step , 122 

Article Y. 
To inarch in retreat 124 

LESSON FOURTH. 
Article I. 

To march by the flank 127 

Article IL 

To change direction by file 128 

Article III. 
To halt the company marching by the flank and to face it 
to the front '. 129 

Article IY. 
The company being in march by the flank, to form it on the 
right (or left) by file, into line of battle ISO 

Article Y. 
The company being in march by the flank to form it by 
company or by platoon into line, and to cause it to 
face to the right and left in marching 183 

LESSON FIFTH. 

Article I. 

To break into column by platoon either at a halt or on march 186 

24 



278 CONTEN^TS. 

PAOB. 

Abticle IL 
To march in colmrm 143 

Article III. 
To change direction 145 

Article IY. 
To halt the column 149 

Article Y. 
Being in column by platoon to form to the right or left into 
line of battle either at a halt or on the march 150 

LESSON SIXTH. 
Article I. 
To break the company into platoons and to reform the 
company ....'. 156 

Article II. 
Being in column, to break files to the rear and to cause them 
to re-enter the line 1^ 

Article III. 
To march the column in route, and to execute the move- 
ments incident thereto 168 

Article IY. 

Countermarch » 170 

Article Y. 
J5eing in column by platoon to form on the right or left 

into line of battle 172 

Formation of a company from two ranks into single rank 

and reciprocally 173 

Formation of a company from two ranks into four and re- 
ciprocally at a halt and marching , 177 

TITLE IY. 
ln'struction for skirmishers. 

General principles and division df the Instructions 181 

Article I. 

Deployments 184 

To deploy forward 185 

To deploy by the flank 190 

To extend intervals 192 

To close intervals _ 194 

To relieve a company deployed as skirmishers. 1^ 



CONTENTS. 279 

PAOE. 

Aeticlb II. 

To advance in line, and to retreat in line 19^3 

To change direction 198 

To march by the Hank 200 

Article III. 

To fire at a halt 202 

To fire marching 203 

Aeticlb IY. 

To form column 207 

To rally by fours 207 

To rally by sections 208 

To rally by platoons 210 

To rally on the reserve 210 

To form square 218 

To assemble on the reserve 215 

Article Y. 

To deploy the battalions as skirmishers 217 

To assemble the battalion 221 

To rally the battalion 221 



Manual of the sword or sabre, for officers 224 

Salute of the color 225 . 

Manual for relieving sentinels 225 ' 

Parade rest 226 

Instructions for drum-major (or principal musician) 227 

General calls on the drum 227 

Beats on the drum for skirmishers 228 

General calls on the bugle 229 

Calls on the bugle far skirmishers 280 

Signals of the drum major for the principal beats and 

sounds 231 

Signals for the manoeuvres of the field music and band. . . . 232 

To ground drums, &,c 232 

Music 234 



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